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Lancet. 2017 Jul 01; 390(10089):1.Add to my documents.
The Botswana Medical Eligibility Criteria Wheel: Adapting a tool to meet the needs of Botswana's family planning program.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2016 Jun; 20(2):9-12.In efforts to strive for family planning repositioning in Botswana, the Ministry of Health convened a meeting to undertake an adaptation of the Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use (MEC) wheel. The main objectives of this process were to present technical updates of the various contraceptive methods, to update the current medical conditions prevalent to Botswana and to adapt the MEC wheel to meet the needs of the Botswanian people. This commentary focuses on the adaptation process that occurred during the week-long stakeholder workshop. It concludes with the key elements learned from this process that can potentially inform countries who are interested in undergoing a similar exercise to strengthen their family planning needs.
[Unpublished] 1998.  p.The assembled national youth ministers commit themselves to national youth policies and formulate guidelines in association with youth on the following topics: Participation, Development, Peace, Education, Employment, Health, and Drug & Substance Abuse.
Lancet. 2007 Oct 20; 370(9596):1394.Eradicating poliomyelitis presents many challenges. Financing essential activities can be difficult when donors fail to meet funding targets (a US$60 million funding gap currently exists for the fourth quarter of 2007). Security issues in two of the four polio-endemic countries-Afghanistan and Pakistan-make access to children difficult for immunisation teams. And in Nigeria, low vaccine coverage and an outbreak of disease from vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) could set back global eradication efforts. Over the past 10 years there have been nine outbreaks of poliomyelitis derived from the oral vaccine in nine countries. Nigeria has seen the largest outbreak; 69 children have been paralysed this year. VDPVs are rare but occur when the live virus in an oral polio vaccine mutates and reverts to neurovirulence. This loss of attenuation does not matter so much in populations who are fully immunised with oral vaccine, since they will be protected from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, but in Nigeria,where vaccine coverage is 39% (and even lower in some northern states), it is a problem. (excerpt)
International Affairs. 2006 Mar; 82(2):269-284.This article attempts to lay out a set of broad theoretical questions, illustrated with material from two visits to sub-Saharan Africa, including interviews with government officials and international organization representatives in Botswana and Malawi, about 70 interviews with staff from AIDS NGOs across sub-Saharan Africa, and an initial effort at mapping the universe of organizations responding to Africa's AIDS pandemic. The article focuses on four issues: (1) the nature of the organizations responding to AIDS in Africa; (2) the relation of AIDS governance to existing patterns of African governance, including the possibilities of syncretism and, conversely, a stand-off between the organizational models created by AIDS NGOs and existing patterns of authority and cooperation in African societies; (3) the problems and possibilities of 'cultural match' between existing repertoires of 'collective action schemas' and those proffered by NGOs and international organizations;1 and (4) the slippery matter of the play of power, money and identity in a field of power with very unequal players. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2004. 21 p.The Policy Workshop was organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and hosted by the Government of Namibia, National Planning Commission Secretariat. It was held at Windhoek, Namibia. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives of governments and non-governmental organizations as well as academic experts and practitioners from various countries in southern Africa to discuss the impact of HIV/AIDS on families in the region, to consider how families and communities are coping with the disease, and to contribute to the development of a strategic policy framework to assist Governments to strengthen the capacity of families and family networks to cope. In order to compare experience across regions, a participant from Eastern Europe was also invited to the workshop. (excerpt)
Moscow, Russia, Transatlantic Partners Against AIDS, 2005. 52 p.The purpose of this Handbook is to assist members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, and other Russian officials on the federal and regional levels, in enacting appropriate legislation and legislative reform to address AIDS, whether they be initiatives prohibiting discrimination against PLWHA or members of highly vulnerable groups, laws guaranteeing reliable HIV prevention information for all Russian citizens, or other policy priorities — and ensuring adequate fiscal and other resources to support them. This Handbook provides examples of the best legislative and regulatory practices gathered from around the world. Best practices are given for each of the 12 guidelines contained in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, published in 1998 by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The Handbook also presents detailed information on the Russian AIDS epidemic with regard to the establishment and implementation of these Guidelines. Most importantly, the Handbook outlines concrete recommendations on measures that legislators can take to protect human rights and promote public health in responding to the epidemic. (author's)
HIV and AIDS and quality education for all youth. Summary. Preparatory seminar, 47th International Conference on Education, Geneva, 7th September 2004.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNESCO, International Bureau of Education, 2005. 12 p. (IBE/2005/RP/HV/02)A teacher can save more lives than a doctor; a quote from Mr. Peter Piot, Executive Director of UNAIDS, at the opening of this high level seminar on HIV & AIDS and education. This short sentence sums up the vital importance of the education sector in the fight against HIV & AIDS. This preparatory seminar, held on the eve of the 47th session of the International Conference on Education (ICE) brought together some 10 Ministers of Education and over 70 ministerial delegates, coming from around the world to participate in the ICE. This event was organized by the International Bureau of Education (IBE/UNESCO) in collaboration with UNAIDS co-sponsors and with the support of the Interagency Task Team on HIV & AIDS Education. Its objectives were: To discuss the essential issues concerning the roles and responsibilities of the education sector in the fight against HIV and AIDS; To identify the priority measures required to ensure an effective response from the education sector; To prepare and transmit key messages to the ICE delegates so that HIV & AIDS issues were integrated into the discussions, and ultimately, into the results of the 47th ICE. (excerpt)
New Courier. 2005 Nov; 5-6.Many ministry staff battling to improve girls' education in Asia are highly motivated but isolated within their own countries, as their governments barely acknowledge the importance of "mainstreaming" gender issues into all aspects of policy. "Oft en officials say we don't have gender problems because all girls are in school but in terms of equality and opportunities there are many problems," says Ochirkhuyag Gankhuyag, from UNESCO's Bangkok bureau. Girls must not only be given the chance to finish school, they must be able to get jobs without facing discrimination, he says. The UN's Gender in Education Network in Asia (GENIA) programme was launched in 2002 to provide support and training to those who can make a difference. Based in Bangkok, GENIA identified "Gender Focal Points" (GFPs) - ministry of education officials responsible for promoting equality - in 11 Asian countries* and organises workshops for them so that they can learn from each other. (excerpt)
The challenge of Africa: ministers debate vicious cycle of poverty and conflict, new initiatives for development - UN Economic and Social Council.
UN Chronicle. 1995 Dec; 32(4): p..Faced with unrelenting impoverishment, marginalization and social strife engulfing Africa - home to the greatest proportion of least developed nations in the world - ministers from every region of the world convened during the 1995 session of the UN Economic and Social Council to tackle the complex range of interrelated issues and problems that have made the economic and social development of Africa a formidable challenge. "Today, this continent often baffles the world by continually giving the international community reasons for alternating between hope and discouragement", UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said on 4 July in an address to the opening of the Council's three-day high-level segment, whose purpose is to set UN policy on major international matters. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):43.The IRC/UNDP Human Rights and Rule of Law training programme was launched in September 2004 with the support of tribal leaders in Darfur and the endorsement of state and federal authorities. Human rights training courses and workshops have been attended by some 7,000 people. Participants have included military officers, local police officers, lawyers, judges, law students, leaders of women’s organisations and youth groups, IDP camp leaders, municipal officials, prison administrators and the native administration. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Seven years down the road from the first international conference on “Women in the City, Housing, Services and the Urban Environment” (Paris, OECD 1994), much has been achieved, especially in the context of the follow-up to the City Summit (Istanbul , 1996) and the growth of international networking on issues related to Women in local governance. What we are witnessing is the concrete implementation of city policies, structures and mechanisms aimed at ensuring equal access to decision-making at the city and borough level, as well as equal access to services and resources delivered at these levels of urban governance. A number of “ingredients” are used in cities of the North, as well as cities of the South, both big and small. Although these ingredients differ in scope, themes and priorities, within different social, economic, cultural and political contexts, “gender equality in urban governance” seems to be a cross-cutting issue. This offers great opportunities for “City-to-City cooperation”, through development of case studies, knowledge and practice sharing amongst all partners involved: elected officials, city managers and staff, women’s, grass roots and community based organizations, unions, researchers, national associations of local governments and global organizations and networks. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3): p..Large-scale corruption in developed and developing countries is closely connected to contracting-out, concessions, and privatization. The encouragement of privatization of public services and infrastructure by the World Bank and others has multiplied the potential scale of this business. At the same time it has multiplied the incentives for multinational companies active in these sectors to offer bribes in order to secure concessions and contracts. One of the sectors most at risk is water and sanitation. The concessions invariably involve long-term monopoly supply of an essential service, with considerable potential profit. Often, major construction works are involved, which are themselves a source of profit. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Jul 2; 331:46-47.I want to congratulate you, Prime Minister Blair, on the hard work that you and your team have put into the Commission for Africa’s report. It is an honest document, probing gently but fearlessly into the reasons why so many endeavours in this great continent have failed. You emphasise the responsibility of African leaders to drive development from within Africa but at the same time make clear the responsibility of the richer countries to commit to serious partnership in the process, with the aim being Africa’s development rather than their own. I am sure you don’t need reminding that these principles will be difficult to put into practice, but I am hopeful that the report will be a template for action. When I heard about the commission last year I tried to contact you, requesting that at least one of the commissioners be involved in health care. Maybe you were overwhelmed by advice, as my letters went unanswered. However, your report has touched on matters of health, with sections on HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. These diseases are of enormous importance and are already being tackled by many groups in Africa. I am not involved in HIV treatment myself, but many of my patients are infected by the virus and my wife is working in a palliative care project for dying children, most of whom have HIV or AIDS, so I know first hand of the misery and hopelessness in so many lives. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 May 28; 365(9474):1837-1840.The appointment of Paul Wolfowitz to take over as World Bank chief prompted a barrage of criticism from activists concerned about his role in the Iraq war. But are these protests justified? Health economist and former World Bank speechwriter Jennifer Prah Ruger reviews the evidence. On June 1, 2005, Paul D Wolfowitz will take over from James D Wolfensohn as president of the World Bank. Wolfowitz, a former US Deputy Secretary of Defense, US Ambassador to Indonesia, and US Assistant Secretary of State, comes to the job under a cloud of controversy over his previous work and ideological convictions. Former World Bank Chief Economist Joseph Stiglitz predicted that the appointment could “bring street protests and violence across the developing world.” The BBC reported the British-based World Development Movement describing his nomination as “terrifying”. So can Wolfowitz lead the bank effectively? And what will his presidency mean for health and human development? (excerpt)
Remarks as prepared for delivery by Vice President Al Gore, U.N. Security Council session on AIDS in Africa, Monday, January 10, 2000.
[Unpublished] . 4 p.“HIV/AIDS is not someone else’s problem. It is my problem. It is your problem. By allowing it to spread, we face the danger that our youth will not reach adulthood. Their education will be wasted. The economy will shrink. There will be a large number of sick people whom the health will not be able to maintain.” Mr. Secretary and Members of the Council: These are not my words. They were not uttered in the United States or the United Nations. They were spoken by my friend, President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, as he declared South Africa’s Partnership Against AIDS more than a year ago. The same words should be spoken out not only in South Africa, not only in Africa, but all across the earth. In Africa, the scale of the crisis may be greater, the infrastructure weaker, and the people poorer, but the threat is real for every people and every nation, everywhere on earth. No border can keep AIDS out; it cuts across all the lines that divide us. We owe ourselves and each other the utmost commitment to act against AIDS on a global scale – and especially where the scourge is greatest. AIDS is a global aggressor that must be defeated. As we enter the new millennium, Africa has crossed the first frontiers of momentous progress. Over the past decade, a rising wave of African nations has moved from dictatorship to democracy, embraced economic reform, opened markets, privatized enterprises, and stabilized currencies. More than half the nations of Africa now elect their own leaders -- nearly four times the number ten years ago -- and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa has tripled, creating prospects for a higher quality of life across the continent. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1136-1137.The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) aspires to be “the driving force that helps build a world where the rights of every child are realized”. This year’s State of the World Children is dedicated to three key threats affecting more than one billion children: poverty, armed conflicts, and HIV/AIDS. The causes are complex and interlinked and must be fought to ensure the rights of the children. We think that the recent appointment of Ann Veneman as the next Executive Director of UNICEF will hinder this fight. Veneman is a political conservative who has served under Republican administrations dating back to President Reagan and was the Secretary of Agriculture during the first term of the Bush administration. In recent years, US agricultural liberalisation policies have promoted a model based on countries specialising in what they are best at producing, exporting these products, and relying on foreign exchange earnings to purchase other food for local consumption. This model contrasts sharply with one of self-sufficiency, which tries to ensure that domestic food requirements are met from local production to guarantee food security. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:799-844.It is often supposed that international human rights standards were negotiated without active participation by Middle Eastern and Muslim states. That was not the case. United Nations records document the contributions of Arab and Muslim diplomats from 1946–1966. Diplomats from the Islamic world did not always agree with each other, but their various contributions resulted in the assertion of a right to self-determination, the most comprehensive statement of universality, culturally sensitive language about religious beliefs, and a separate article promoting gender equality. Initially they proposed robust mechanisms for implementation, and they actively opposed the isolation of socioeconomic rights into a separate covenant. Not all of their efforts were successful, and not all of their positions were liberal. While their role as participants and promoters of human rights should not be exaggerated, neither should it be discounted. (author's)
Blocking progress. How the fight against HIV / AIDS is being undermined by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Washington, D.C., ActionAid International USA, 2004 Sep. 26 p.This briefing explores the logic of International Monetary Fund (IMF) loan conditions to developing countries and why the IMF insists that keeping inflation low is more important than increasing public spending to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. In 2003, funding levels for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment are estimated to have reached almost $5 billion; meanwhile financing needs will rise to $12 billion in 2005 and $20 billion by 2007. But if these large increases in foreign aid become available, will low-income countries be able to accept them? Despite the fact that the global community stands ready to significantly scale-up levels of foreign aid to help poorer countries finance greater public spending to fight HIV/AIDS, many countries may be deterred from doing so due to either direct or indirect pressure from the IMF. The IMF fears that increased public spending will lead to higher rates of inflation, but there is an open question in the economics profession about how high is too high, and what is an appropriate level of inflation. Despite this being an open question among economists, the IMF has taken an extremist position that lacks adequate justification. Such a position seriously undermines the best efforts of the global community to meaningfully address the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other health issues such as tuberculosis (TB) and malaria. (excerpt)
Global health-sector strategy for HIV / AIDS, 2003-2007. Providing a framework for partnership and action.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2003. 32 p.The foundations for generating action to meet the daunting challenges posed by HIV/AIDS are clear policies, effective strategic planning and sound decision-making processes. These foundations help to create strong partnerships, to make the best use of human and financial resources, and to generate positive outcomes. However, many countries are struggling to create a truly effective strategic approach to HIV/AIDS. Conscious of the need to define and strengthen the role of the health sector within a broad multisectoral response to HIV/AIDS, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution in May 2000 requesting the Director General of WHO to develop a strategy for addressing HIV/AIDS as part of the United Nations system-wide effort to combat the pandemic. The resulting Global Health-Sector Strategy (GHSS) for HIV/AIDS described in this document is only one of a number of important initiatives that have emerged since the United Nations Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001, and has been developed by WHO in a spirit of renewed determination. The global community in general and the health sector in particular now have an exceptional opportunity to redouble their efforts against a devastating global pandemic and to show what can be achieved through bold leadership and concerted action. (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 2004 Jan; 17(4):4-5.Late last year, UN Secretary-General spoke to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) about the global struggle against HIV/AIDS. The interview was broadcast on World Service Radio and posted on BBC's website on 28 November. The full interview can be heard at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3244564.stm. The transcribed excerpts below are reproduced with permission of the BBC. They have been edited slightly for clarity. (author's)
Gender, Technology and Development. 2001 Sep-Dec; 5(3):341-364.Empowering women of forest based societies to participate in local forest management has become an essential rhetorical commitment of donor funded 'participatory' forestry projects and state policies for devolution of forest management. Instead of increasing women's empowerment, the top-down interventions of a World Bank funded forestry project in Uttarakhand are doing the opposite by disrupting and marginalizing their own struggles and achievements, transferring power and authority to the forest department and local elite men. A number of case studies illustrate the project's insensitivity to the dynamic functioning of existing self-governing institutions and the women's ongoing struggles within them to gain greater voice and control over forest resources for improving their quality of life and livelihood security. The article argues for active engagement of forest women and their communities in the policy and project formulation process itself, which permits building upon women's and men's own initiatives and struggles while strengthening gender-equal democratization of self-governing community forestry institutions. (author's)
POPLINE. 2003 Sep-Oct; 25:1, 4.A former Republican governor of Michigan has lashed out against the GOP for “playing the politics of the past” by “allowing itself to become identified with an agenda on family planning that threatens to reverse the decades of progress in empowering women in the United States and abroad.” (excerpt)
Contraception. 2003 Sep; 68(3):157-158.In the wake of warnings that researchers who study AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases may face special scrutiny, complying with instructions from staff at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to cleanse grant application abstracts of potentially controversial terms appears a prudent course of action. After all, a quick document scan and a few minor wording changes seem like harmless compromises— but are they? (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2002 Dec; 28(4):707-733.We begin by briefly describing the shift in population policies. We then set out two theoretical frameworks expected to account for national reactions to the new policy: first, the spontaneous spread of new cultural items and the coalescence of a normative consensus about their value, and second, the directed diffusion of cultural items by powerful Western donors. We then describe our data and evaluate its quality. Subsequently, we analyze the responses of national elites in our five study countries to the Cairo agenda in terms of discourse and implementation. In our conclusion, we evaluate these responses in terms of the validity of the two theoretical frameworks. (excerpt)