Your search found 161 Results
Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.Add to my documents.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Oct.  p.With support from the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC) Innovation Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is implementing the National Action for Financing (NAF) project to work with stakeholders to position funding for RH supplies as a critical element in the new development financing architecture. This publication aims to enable stakeholders to understand the implications of the changes and challenges to RH supplies funding. The advocacy messages and tactics described in this document can help influence decision-making, increase funding and improve access to RH supplies and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). (Excerpt)
Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process.
Health Policy and Planning. 2015 Jul; 30(6):687-95.As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a window into understanding one approach to graduation from donor assistance. The process itself-involving transparent country-level partners well in advance of graduation-appears a valuable lesson towards success. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2013 Jan.  p.This brief describes the evolution of contraceptive procurement in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, highlighting how LAC countries monitored and evaluated key data when making performance improvements. By introducing and monitoring key indicators, they were able to smooth the procurement process and improve procurement performance.
How Brazil outpaced the United States when it came to AIDS: the politics of civic infiltration, reputation, and strategic internationalization.
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. 2011 Apr; 36(2):317-52.Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS.
Trends in development assistance and domestic financing for health in implementing countries. Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria third replenishment (2011-2013).
Geneva, Switzerland, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2010 Mar.  p.Donors at the Mid-Term Review of the Global Fund's Second Voluntary Replenishment 2008- 2010 held in Caceres in March 2009 requested a report on the progress made by African countries with regard to the Abuja Declaration. This declaration, adopted at a 2001 summit of the Organisation of African Unity, was a commitment of African states to allocate at least 15 percent of their annual budgets to the health sector. Donors at the Mid-Term Review meeting also requested information concerning counterpart funding from middle-income countries. 2. This update begins with an explanation of current trends in development assistance for health (DAH) and the role that these external resources play in the total expenditure on health in low- and middle-income countries. It examines progress in 52 African countries and a sample of 20 non-African middle-income countries. It utilizes data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) / Development Assistance Committee's (DAC) aggregated aid statistics and the Creditor Reporting System (CRS), the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) Development Assistance for Health database, the World Bank Development Indicators and the World Health Organization (WHO) National Health Accounts database. 3. Since the Abuja Summit in 2001, many African countries have increased the proportion of their national budget allocated to health. Over half of African countries recorded increases in health budget allocations between 2001 and 2007. By 2007, three African countries had achieved the Abuja target of 15 percent, and three others had exceeded this amount. For all 52 countries, the average general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure rose marginally from 8.8 percent in 2001 to 9.0 percent in 2007. 4. The proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) devoted to health also increased marginally in the period 2001-2007, from 5.0 percent in 2001 to 5.3 percent in 2007. Substantial flows of DAH to these countries (amounting to US$ 4.7 billion in 2007) have contributed to these increased total expenditures on health. 5. Funding of the health sector in the lower-income countries examined contains a substantial proportion of DAH. In the middle-income countries examined, this funding is predominantly from domestic sources and external resources only contribute a negligible proportion of the total expenditure on health. In nearly two-thirds of the middle-income countries assessed for this paper, external resources contributed less than 1 percent of the total expenditure on health in 2007. 6. In the current economic climate, the likelihood of African governments significantly increasing the proportional allocation to the health sector is not encouraging. With the current low per-capita expenditure on health in these countries, inflows of external resources remain critical if African countries are to run national programs at a scale necessary to achieve national and global targets in the fight against the three diseases. 7. Global Fund policy requires lower-middle income countries and upper-middle income countries to contribute substantially to their national program costs, for a number of reasons: to ensure national ownership of programs and their longer-term sustainability of programs, as well as to ensure sufficient funds are available to lower-income countries. In line with the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness and in an attempt to avoid imposing specific further reporting requirements, it has not been the practice to request middle income countries to identify specific program components that they will fund. It is recognized that data in this domain needs to be strengthened and systematically collected and the Secretariat will explore ways in which to do that with technical partners in a manner that is consistent with aid effectiveness principles. The reform of the Global Fund business model, known as the architecture review, presents an opportunity for progress in this work.
MCN. American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing. 2010 Jan-Feb; 35(1):63.The purpose of this article is to describe recent initiatives designed to improve outcomes for Bolivian women and children. It discusses the high infant and maternal mortality rates of Bolivia and stresses the importance of the international community partnering with the Bolivian government and healthcare personnel to provide support and assistance in a coordinated fashion to make a difference in the health and well-being of women and children.
From advocacy to access: Bangladesh. 360 degrees advocacy: Strengthening a weak contraceptive supply chain in Bangladesh. Fact chart.
London, England, IPPF, 2009 Nov.  p.In Bangladesh, the IPPF Member Association, the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), worked with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to improve the dysfunctional supply chain. Results to date include: The Ministry of Health reactivated the Logistical Coordination Forum, a donor, government and civil society led group, to identify and solve blockages in the supply chain; Capacity building and training for staff in the Logistics and Supply Unit were increased; The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare committed to using government resources to make up the shortfall from declining donor contributions.
From advocacy to access: Uganda. The power of networks: How do you mobilize funds for reproductive health supplies? Fact chart.
London, England, IPPF, 2009 Nov.  p.In Uganda the IPPF Member Association, Reproductive Health Uganda (RHU) coordinated civil society and mobilized advocates and champions to increase the availability of RH supplies and family planning. Results to date include: The Government of Uganda increased funding for RH supplies in the 2010 budget; The Government of Uganda disburses funds directly to the National Medical Stores on an annual basis enabling the bulk purchase of contraceptives; 30 out of 80 districts have committed to increasing their resource allocation for family planning and RH supplies.
Coordination, management and utilization of foreign assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention in Vietnam. Assessment report.
Ha Noi, Vietnam, CCRD, 2006 Oct. 82 p. (CCRD Assesssment Report)International assistance for HIV / AIDS prevention and control in Vietnam has significantly contributed to combating this epidemic. However, while current resources have not yet fully met the needs, the management and utilization of resources still had many limitations which affect the effectiveness of foreign assistance and investments. The independent assessment was prepared for the Conference on “the Coordination of Foreign Assistance for HIV / AIDS Prevention and Control”. Analytical assessment and comments on the management and coordination of foreign aid were made on the basis of Government’s official procedures and regulations on those issues. This research was carried out in October, 2006.
Washington, D.C., Constella Futures, Health Policy Initiative, 2008 Nov.  p. (USAID Contract No. GPO-I-01-05-00040-00)This report describes how the Government of Peru was successful in diversifying its procurement options and mechanisms for contraceptive commodities. It shows the progress made between 1999, when Peru began purchasing contraceptive supplies with public funds, and mid-2007, when important changes were made in procurement channels. Today, the Peruvian government procures contraceptives from multiple national and international suppliers and is able to negotiate for favorable prices and other terms. (Author's abstract)
Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press, 2008 Dec 15.  p.At this historic moment, the incoming Obama administration and leaders of the U.S. Congress have the opportunity to advance the welfare and prosperity of people within and beyond the borders of the United States through intensified and sustained attention to better health. The United States can improve the lives of millions around the world, while reflecting America's values and protecting and promoting the nation's interests. The Institute of Medicine-with the support of four U.S. government agencies and five private foundations-formed an independent committee to examine the United States' commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments and activities in this area.
Public-private partnerships: Managing contracting arrangements to strengthen the Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India. Lessons and implications from three case studies.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007.  p.Strengthening management capacity and meeting the need for reproductive and child health (RCH) services is a major challenge for the national RCH program of India. Central and state governments are using multiple options to meet this challenge, responding to the complex issues in RCH, which include social, cultural and economic factors and reflect the immense geographical barriers to access for remote and rural population. Other barriers are also being addressed, including lessening financial burdens and creating public-private partnerships to expand access. For example, the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in order to focus on rural populations, although departments of health face a number of challenges in implementing this initiative. In this document, we focus on a key area: the development of management capacity for working with the private sector. We synthesize the lessons learnt from three case studies of public-private partnerships in RCH: two are state initiatives, in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and the third is the national mother nongovernmental organization scheme. The case studies were conducted to determine how management capacity was developed in these three public-private partnerships in service delivery, by examining the structure and process of partnerships, understanding management capacity and competence in various public-private partnerships in RCH, and identifying the means for developing the management capacity of partners. (author's)
Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, .  p. (Policy Brief)Driven by the increasing demand for and popularity of family planning, increasing population size, and changing demographics with more couples entering their fertile years, the financing requirement for contraceptives has become increasingly onerous. Strategies to finance contraceptives include expansion of the donor base; increased use of cost recovery, including revolving drug funds; greater use of the private sector; and direct government financing of contraceptive procurement. None of these is mutually exclusive, and to ensure contraceptive security, most countries are likely to use some or all of these approaches, and many others. Evidence suggests that many governments are beginning to finance contraceptive procurement using national resources, but limited data are publicly available regarding the global extent of this financing. This brief details the findings of a survey of the extent to which national governments of developing countries are using national resources to finance contraceptive procurement. The brief examines the different types of financing used, some of the benefits of this type of financing, and some of the issues it raises. Hopefully, this study can be repeated to track spending and will spur more rigorous efforts to measure this practice. (excerpt)
Estimating the costs of achieving the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006 -- 2015.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):27-39.The objective was to estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis); and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8-4.2) billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9-1.6) billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9-6.7) billion. Total immunization costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13-40) billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23-110) billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11-15 billion (30%-40%) of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap of financing gaps that need to be filled to scale up immunization by 2015. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):13-19.Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 88 p.The resource pack takes the form of brief "sheets" on a range of issues. The sheets are relatively independent of each other, but are organised into different sub-topics (as outlined in the Structure section on page 10). A user does not need to read through all the sheets at one sitting, but rather can use them as needed. Each topic contains references to further reading. In some cases, these are the main source for what is written in the resource pack; in other cases, they refer to related writing. The sheets also describe a range of experiences of using GRB in different countries to illustrate different aspects and tools. These examples include some in which gender was not incorporated, despite opportunities to do so. The resource pack builds on, rather than repeats, the existing general materials on GRB. In particular, it should be seen as a complement to the BRIDGE resource pack and to the Commonwealth Secretariat's publication, Engendering Budgets: A practitioner's guide to understanding and implementing gender-responsive budgets. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):623-630.The objective was to provide the international community with an estimate of the amount of financial resources needed to scale up malaria control to reach international goals, including allocations by country, year and intervention as well as an indication of the current funding gap. A costing model was used to estimate the total costs of scaling up a set of widely recommended interventions, supporting services and programme strengthening activities in each of the 81 most heavily affected malaria-endemic countries. Two scenarios were evaluated, using different assumptions about the effect of interventions on the needs for diagnosis and treatment. Current health expenditures and funding for malaria control were compared to estimated needs. A total of US$ 38 to 45 billion will be required from 2006 to 2015. The average cost during this period is US$ 3.8 to 4.5 billion per year. The average costs for Africa are US$ 1.7 billion and US$ 2.2 billion per year in the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios, respectively; outside Africa, the corresponding costs are US$ 2.1 billion and US$ 2.4 billion. While these estimates should not be used as a template for country-level planning, they provide an indication of the scale and scope of resources required and can help donors to collaborate towards meeting a global benchmark and targeting funding to countries in greatest need. The analysis highlights the need for much greater resources to achieve the goals and targets for malaria control set by the international community. (author's)
[New York, New York], Women's UN Report Program and Network, 2007.  p.The theme of International Women's Day 2007 is Ending Impunity for Violence Against Women. Gender-blind International Financial Institution (IFI) operations-those of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and the regional development banks-financing private-corporate led growth, debt repayment, and low inflation and public spending often aggravate existing discrimination against women and girls, particularly among marginalized groups such as indigenous peoples. Such IFI investments intensify poverty, human displacement, trafficking in and violence against women, prostitution, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. The IFIs may not intend their investments to contribute to violence against women, but the impacts are all too real. For example, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)-funded Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, supposedly designed to boost development, has degraded theenvironment, driven many women and girls in communities around the pipeline into prostitution, and increased sexually transmitted diseases, sexual harassment and violence against women. The East Asian financial crisis-brought on ten years ago largely by bad IMF advice designed to stimulate foreign investment-strained household gender relations, increasing domestic violence against women and girls, family abandonment by household heads, and female suicide. (excerpt)
Matrix of major donor government structures and mechanisms for financing the HIV / AIDS response in low and middle income countries.
Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, .  p.Donor governments provide multiple types of financial and other assistance to address HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries, including grants, loans, concessional loans, commodities, and technical assistance. In addition, international assistance is provided through both bilateral and multilateral channels, and some mix of the two, reflecting donor decisions, capabilities, and preferences. Donor funding strategies and mechanisms also differ across several other dimensions, including funding cycles, regional focus, types of aid recipient, and period over which funding is committed and disbursed. Understanding such differences across donors is important for gaining a fuller picture of the international response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
A healthy partnership -- a case study of the MOH contract to KHANA for disbursement of World Bank funds for HIV / AIDS in Cambodia.
[Brighton, England], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2005 Mar. 12 p.In 1998, the Cambodian Ministry of Health was experiencing difficulties in disbursing World Bank funds earmarked for local NGOs/CBOs, and in 1999, contracted Khana to manage the disbursement process. Given the scarcity of documented successful government-NGO/CBO disbursement initiatives, the Alliance commissioned a case study of this mechanism of making World Bank funds more accessible to civil society organisations. This report of the case study outlines the background and context to adopting the disbursement mechanism, explains the selection of the disbursing agency and the process of contract negotiation, details the nature and quantity of the disbursement, and identifies the strengths, weaknesses and lessons learned from this model. (excerpt)
Malaria treatment policy: technical support needs assessment. Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) Senegal Mission report, March 14-21, 2005.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005. 18 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADF-437)African countries are undergoing a period of dramatic change in their national malaria treatment policies as more of these countries adopt artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Successful implementation of the new ACT policies presents many challenges and most countries will require technical assistance from a variety of sources, both internal and external. The Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) partnership brings together three partners that have considerable expertise in many of the areas related to ACT implementation, which complements expertise brought by other Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has made a commitment to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to provide technical assistance through MAC. This mission was therefore designed to assess the progress of Senegal toward implementing the new ACT policy and to determine what, if any, additional technical support it may need to successfully complete the implementation. It is expected that the successful implementation of the ACT policy will contribute to the attainment of the RBM goals for the prevention, treatment, and control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through coordinated technical support. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Dec; 8(2):6.A person's ability to read and write in any language with understanding is deeply tied to his or her survival in society. Literacy's benefits are social, cultural, political and economic, and influence a person's self-esteem, confidence and personal empowerment. Latest data from the 2006 Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report show that 132 million of the 771 million people worldwide without literacy skills are aged 15 to 24. The number remains staggering despite an increase in the youth literacy rate to 85 per cent, from 75 per cent in 1970. According to the UNESCO-commissioned EFA report, expanded access to formal schooling contributed to the increase in the global youth literacy rate. In Asia and the Pacific, 73 million people aged 15 to 24 who cannot read or write live in South and West Asia, the largest number of illiterate youth population in the region. The literacy rate for young people in South and West Asia is estimated at 73 per cent. There are 45.7 million illiterate youths in India, 14.74 million in Bangladesh, and 11.12 million in Pakistan. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2005 Dec; 8(2):3.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has launched the State of World Population 2005 report. Its central message is that, in the next decade, the world can free hundreds of millions of people from poverty, save the lives of 30 million children and two million mothers, and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS -- all by strategic investments in various aspects of the quality of life for women and young people, particularly education, sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and economic opportunities. One of the key chapters of the report addresses the current reproductive health situation for young people, who now comprise nearly half the world's population. It describes how gender-based expectations greatly influence the experience of adolescence -- often times diminishing opportunities and increasing risks for girls. The report calls the adolescent population a "missing link" in the policy and budgets of many national governments, saying "though many countries have developed youth policies or programmes, few give youth concerns the concerted and sustained attention they deserve." (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Mar-May; 42(1): p..Natural disasters devastate many parts of the world, whether they were high-intensity hurricanes battering the Pacific islands or gigantic ocean waves killing thousands in its wake. From strengthening coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance, including special economic aid to individual countries or regions, to correcting global trade imbalances and promoting information technology for development, the Second Committee worked hard on these issues during the fifty-ninth session of the General Assembly. With 2005 marking the start of the ten-year countdown to 2015, the target date for the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim, among others, at halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education, the Committee worked towards aligning its objectives with the framework of the MDGs. (excerpt)