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In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.
New York, Population Council, 1979 Oct. 68 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 48)After outlining various problems posed by the growth or decline of population and the class of feasible means available to governments for dealing with them, the authors pose the question of whether important ethical issues are raised by interventionist policies actually in use today. These policy options are surveyed in detail and shown to fall into 3 categories of government intervention: 1) Limitations imposed on access to modern methods of fertility control. 2) Incentives and disincentives of various kinds. 3) Politically organized peer pressure. With regard to ethical issues raised by these policies, the authors invert the traditional procedure in the ethical literature of first providing an overarching ethical theory and then deducing consequences pertaining to particular issues -- in this case population controversies. Instead, they adopt a contextual and piecemeal approach to the ethical concerns which views ethics as a species of decision making, resting on agreed-upon premises and proceeding to substantive conclusions as to what sort of action should be taken in particular situations. Proceeding to examine the 3 sets of policies from this perspective, they find limitations on access and incentive programs ethically permissible provided certain safeguards and intuitive conditions are satisfied. The 2nd category -- politically organized peer pressure -- is found unethical except under stringent conditions and where other approaches have been tried first. In the final section of the paper, the authors clarify aspects of the ethical framework underlying their judgments on the policy and raise and discuss a number of subsidiary problems. (Author's)