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  1. 1
    339665

    Regional report on the implementation of the UNICEF guidelines for the protection of the rights of child victims of trafficking in South Eastern Europe: Assessment of the situation in Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    Cazenave P

    [Geneva, Switzerland], Terre des Hommes, [2010]. 115 p.

    Trafficking in human beings still remains a major human rights violation affecting South Eastern Europe. Although many efforts have been made and progress achieved in combating trafficking throughout Europe in general, and South Eastern Europe in particular, human beings are still victims of trafficking and children, as a particularly vulnerable group, represent an important proportion of the persons being trafficked.
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  2. 2
    339805

    Krakow Statement [on Children's Rights].

    East-Central European Forum of NGOs on Child Issues on the Tenth Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1999: Krakow)

    [Unpublished] 1999. [1] p.

    This statement regards the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Poland and other Eastern and Central European countries. It discusses initiatives that the participants urge all governments to implement for children's rights and to eliminate child poverty, discrimination, and dangerous work situations.
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  3. 3
    299619
    Peer Reviewed

    Acess to AIDS medicines stumbles on trade rules.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):337-424.

    Developing countries are failing to make full use of flexibilities built into the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to overcome patent barriers and, in turn, allow them to acquire the medicines they need for high priority diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS. First-line antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV/AIDS have become more affordable and available in recent years, but for patients facing drug resistance and side-effects, second-line ARV drugs and other newer formulations are likely to remain prohibitively expensive and inaccessible in many countries. The problem is that many of these countries are not using all the tools at their disposal to overcome these barriers. Medicines protected by patents tend to be expensive, as pharmaceutical companies try to recoup their research and development (R&D) costs. When there is generic competition prices can be driven down dramatically. The TRIPS Agreement came into effect on 1 January 1995 setting out minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, including patents on pharmaceuticals. Under that agreement, since 2005 new drugs may be subject to at least 20 years of patent protection in all, apart from in the least-developed countries and a few non-WTO Members, such as Somalia. Successful AIDS programmes, such as those in Brazil and Thailand, have only been possible because key pharmaceuticals were not patent protected and could be produced locally at much lower cost. For example, when the Brazilian Government began producing generic AIDS drugs in 2000, prices dropped. AIDS triple-combination therapy, which costs US$ 10 000 per patient per year in industrialized countries, can now be obtained from Indian generic drugs company, Cipla, for less than US$ 200 per year. This puts ARV treatment within reach of many more people. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    287695

    Recasting WID: a human rights approach.

    Whelan D

    Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 1998. 16 p. (ICRW Working Paper No. 6)

    How is it that 556 million women and girls throughout the world are illiterate, and this is not viewed as a violation of their right to education? When 600,000 women die annually as a result of complications of pregnancy, and an additional 18 million women suffer from pregnancy-related morbidities that go untreated, how is this not seen as a failure of governments to meet their obligations to promote, protect, and fulfill women's rights to the most basic attainable standard of health? How can the feminization of poverty be viewed as anything less than a violation of women's rights to an adequate standard of living, equal access to employment, credit, property, and training? These alarming statistics constitute the foundation of the literature on women in development (WID), and are generally referred to as "the state of the world's women." The time has come to call these realities what they truly are: human rights violations. It is fitting that the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights--adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly in 1948--comes at a time when a new discourse on human rights and development is emerging. This new thinking is especially important to the field of women in development, as it holds the potential of launching a revitalized effort toward ensuring gender equity and equality for the next century. This trend, however, has only recently begun to gain a sense of currency among WID researchers and practitioners. Until recently, the promotion and protection of human rights and the realization of sustainable development have been viewed as separate domains. Notably, development measures are rarely viewed as contributing to the realization of specific human rights--for example, the right to food--when that is precisely what such measures have done. (excerpt)
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