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Kobe, Japan, WHO, Centre for Health Development, 2010.  p.This report exposes the extent to which certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from a wide range of diseases and health problems. This report provides information and tools to help governments and local leaders reduce health inequities in their cities. The objective of the report is not to compare rural and urban health inequities. Urban health inequities need to be addressed specifically for they are different in their magnitude and in their distribution.For the first time in human history, the majority of the world’s population is living in urban areas, and this proportion continues to grow. Cities concentrate opportunities, jobs and services, but they also concentrate risks and hazards for health. The rapid increase of people living in cities will be among the most important global health issues of the 21st century. Urban growth has outpaced the ability of governments to build essential infrastructures, and one in three urban dwellers lives in slums or informal settlements. In all countries, certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from poor health, and these inequities can be traced back to differences in their social and living conditions. To unmask the full extent of urban health inequities, it is important to disaggregate health and health determinants data within cities. Unless urgent action is taken to address urban health inequities, countries will not achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goal targets. Acting on urban health inequities requires the involvement of organized communities and all levels of government -- local, provincial and national. Solutions often lie beyond the health sector, and require the engagement of many different sectors of government and society. Local leaders and governments can and should play a key role in promoting urban health equity. (Excerpts)
Malaria treatment policy: technical support needs assessment. Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) Senegal Mission report, March 14-21, 2005.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005. 18 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADF-437)African countries are undergoing a period of dramatic change in their national malaria treatment policies as more of these countries adopt artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Successful implementation of the new ACT policies presents many challenges and most countries will require technical assistance from a variety of sources, both internal and external. The Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) partnership brings together three partners that have considerable expertise in many of the areas related to ACT implementation, which complements expertise brought by other Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has made a commitment to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to provide technical assistance through MAC. This mission was therefore designed to assess the progress of Senegal toward implementing the new ACT policy and to determine what, if any, additional technical support it may need to successfully complete the implementation. It is expected that the successful implementation of the ACT policy will contribute to the attainment of the RBM goals for the prevention, treatment, and control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa through coordinated technical support. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 83 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4B)Evaluating and effectively responding to the global challenge of the HIV epidemic requires an indepth understanding of the strong correlation between health and social, cultural and economic conditions, and how these shape behaviour at both individual and societal levels. While the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Armenia is comparatively low, the rate is growing rapidly. Current prevalence among officially registered cases is 0.02%. The actual rate of prevalence is estimated to be approximately ten times higher, with a greater prevalence among distinct key population groups. Among the factors driving the HIV epidemic in the country - which faces profound socio-economic, political and cultural changes - are: a particular negative and fearful attitude towards the disease; discrimination against people living with HIV; low level of HIV and AIDS awareness among the population; and an increase in injecting drug use and commercial sex work. In Armenia, HIV-positive people are primarily associated with three key populations that are socially marginalized: commercial sex workers (CSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM). For many years an individual's positive HIV status has been equated with immoral behaviour. As a result, PLHIV face aggression. Moreover, it is taboo to openly discuss HIV and AIDS, resulting in the further isolation of PLHIV. Currently many programmes have been implemented in Armenia to surmount stigmatization. However, this process demands numerous long-term activities and commitments from the state. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003. 43 p.The right to the highest attainable standard of health was enshrined in WHO’s constitution over 50 years ago, and recognized as a human right in article 12.1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This right extends to the underlying determinants of health; central among these are safe water and adequate sanitation. Yet we have entered the new millennium with one of the most fundamental conditions of human development unmet: universal access to water. Of the world’s 6 billion people, at least 1.1 billion lack access to safe drinking-water. The lives of these people who are among the poorest on our planet are often devastated by this deprivation, which impedes the enjoyment of health and other human rights such as the right to food and to adequate housing. Water is the essence of life and human dignity. Water is fundamental to poverty reduction, providing people with elements essential to their growth and development. Recently, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which monitors the implementation of the Covenant, adopted General Comment No. 15 in which water is recognized, not only as a limited natural resource and a public good but also as a human right. The right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water, and it must be enjoyed without discrimination and equally by women and men. At the Millennium Summit, States agreed to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking-water. We are pleased to issue this publication as a contribution to the International Year of Freshwater, celebrated worldwide throughout 2003 as an immense opportunity to highlight and promote the right to water as a fundamental human right. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2002 Dec. 50 p. (Afghanistan Vol. 14, No. 11)Recommendations sections immediately following and toward the end of the report set out in more detail how the process of promoting human rights, including rights for women and girls, can be put back on track. This report is based on more than 120 interviews conducted in Herat city and Kabul between September and November 2002. Names and identifying details of many of those interviewed cannot be printed here because of concerns for their security. After Human Rights Watch visited Herat in September 2002, Ismail Khan ordered his security forces to identify and interrogate people who spoke with us. We have also received reports that Ismail Khan’s forces have threatened women whom they believe spoke with us—an indication of the level of intimidation and repression in western Afghanistan. (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. iii, 48 p.The International Labour Organisation (ILO) was set up to bring governments, employers, and trade unions together for united action in the cause of social justice and better living conditions everywhere. It is a tripartite organization, with worker and employer representatives taking part in its work on equal status with those of governments. The number of ILO member countries now stands at 150. 4 Asian countries--China, Japan, India, and Thailand--participated in the establishment of the ILO in 1919. Today, there are 20 ILO member countries in Asia and the Pacific. This report highlights the actions of the Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP) in 1986 and the continuing efforts it undertakes to address current as well as emerging interests. The ILO recognizes that the long-term security of this region pivots on the promotion of employment and human resource development, as well as on the improvement of social justice. Technical programs and advisory services undertaken by the ILO are geared towards achieving these objectives. These programs, which utilize both traditional and innovative approaches to development, incorporate the region's current and emerging priorities. In the area of employment promotion, the ILO is paying increasing attention to the ever-broadening role of the informal sector in employment absorption and income generation. In carrying out efforts to improve social justice, the ILO remains steadfast to the basic principle of equitable distribution of economic growth among the social partners. The ILO's services in the fields of occupational safety and health, social security, workers' education, employers' activities, industrial relations, employment opportunities, and related areas are aimed at achieving this goal.