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MIGRATION NEWS. 1987 Jul-Dec; 36(3/4):24-63.This is the 2nd in a series of 3 papers concerning refugees in Eastern and Southern Africa. It contains in-depth information on the refugee situations in Djibouti, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In Djibouti, political and material constraints have made all 3 durable solutions--voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement to a 3rd country--problematic. Djibouti may be a harbinger for a danger that could face refugees in many other countries of the world, the danger that the inability to find durable solutions for the refugees, or even any viable self-sufficiency programs, may lead to frustration with their presence, which could turn into erosion of support for the provision of asylum itself. If only to avoid the creation of such extreme solutions as "humane deterrence," there is a need for increased attention to problems created in the care-and-maintenance phase of refugee operations rather than just to the difficulties of relief assistance and attaining durable solutions. Because Somalia contains 1 of the world's largest care-and-maintenance populations, there has been considerable discussion of how to help the refugees attain self-sufficiency. What successes there have been so far have been in agriculture; other income-generating projects have been unsuccessful, often producing inferior goods of higher price. A possible rapprochement between Somalia and Ethiopia may lead to changed circumstances which could draw refugees back home to Ethiopia or it may merely lead to their chilly reception by the Somali government. Tanzania has long been looked to for positive models concerning how to promote local integration of refugees through rural settlements. The approaches taken in Tanzania have been much more successful in dealing with economic viability than they have been in dealing with integration. It is rare to hear an assistance official in a settlement mention any concrete steps that are being taken to promote integration, as opposed to not angering the local population by excluding them from the benefits of the settlement's infrastructure. The durable solution which has been applied to most of the refugees in Zambia has been local integration, either spontaneously among ethnic kin, or through living in one of the official settlements. The 4 camps which exist at present in Zimbabwe are all fairly small; this small size, along with the competence of both government and UN officials and the positive relationship between Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in general and the energy of the refugees themselves, have all contributed to giving the camps the reputation of being well-run, leading to the concern that they are run, too well.