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  1. 1

    Restriction of access is displacement: a broader concept and policy.

    Cernea MM

    Forced Migration Review. 2005 May; (23):48-49.

    The conceptual apparatus in forced migration and population resettlement research is being continuously enriched. One important – but still relatively unknown – development was introduced recently into the resettlement policies of the World Bank, African Development Bank and Asian Development Bank. This new thinking is set out in the revised (January 2002) World Bank Operational Policy (OP) 4.12 on resettlement. This significantly defines the ‘restricting of access’ to indigenous and other people in parks and protected areas as ‘involuntary displacement’ even when physical displacement and relocation are not required. The justifying rationale is that restrictions impose impoverishment risks and these risks lead to severe deprivations. Significantly, this new definition has come from major international agencies themselves involved in instituting ‘restricted access’ regimes. As the definition has been adopted, the world’s major development agencies have moved towards policy consensus that restricted access is a form of displacement. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Sustainable cities and local governance: lessons from a global United Nations programme. Habitat II, Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Committee II Hearings from United Nations Agencies / Organizations, Istanbul 7 June 1996.

    United Nations. Centre for Human Settlements [HABITAT]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]. Sustainable Cities Programme

    [Unpublished] 1996. [6] p.

    This paper summarizes some lessons learned about the Sustainable Cities (SCs) Program that were presented at the Second UN Conference on Human Settlements and Committee Hearings in 1996. An SC is defined as one where achievements in social, economic, and physical development are ensured to last for generations to come. SCs are protected from environmental hazards at acceptable risk levels. Social and economic development are based on SCs. SCs rely on broad-based local governance. The SCs Program is part of the larger aim of sustainable development that applies specialized knowledge of urban environmental management at local, national, regional, and global levels. The SCs Program relies on a learning-based process of data collection among partner cities. The Program is driven by local needs and opportunities. The SCs Program relies on inter-agency cooperation and is a joint UN Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS) and UN Environmental Program (UNEP) effort. Broad-based local governance means reliance on local technical and financial resources and mobilization and application of these resources from the local private, public, and community sectors. SCs Program funding has grown from $100,000 to $20 million. Funding comes from UNCHS, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, WHO, ILO, the Netherlands, Denmark, Canada, Italy, and France. Demonstration projects are in 20 cities around the globe and follow Agenda 21 strategies and plans. Cities include Accra, Asuncion, Concepcion, Dar es Salaam, Dakar, Guayaquil, Ibadan, Ismailia, Katowice, Madras, Shenyang, Tunis, and Wuhan. Some cities are ready to move from pilot to national replication. The aim is to include environmental management within urban development decision-making and to strengthen local capacity. City level success indicates that the SCs Program is an excellent facility for interagency collaboration.
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  3. 3


    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 18-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Paraguay's 1985 population of 3,693,0000 is projected to grow to 9,182,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 41.0% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.4% were over the age of 60. 31.3% and 9.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 29.0 to 17.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 66.4 to 69.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 6.7 to 6.6, while infant mortality will decline from 45.0 to 24.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.8 to 3.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 35.8 to 23.9. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 44.8, while the 1982 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.8 years. Urban population will increase from 44.4% in 1985 to 69.7% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while immigration and spatial distribution are not. Paraguay does not have an explicit population policy. Expansion of the domestic market through population growth is considered positive for the nation's development. Population-related policy, therefore, attempts to modify only population distribution and internal migration. Greater programmatic and policy emphasis is placed upon improving overall population welfare through better health, income distribution, education, and employment. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  4. 4

    Compendium of approved projects, as of 30 September 1985.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. vii, 483 p. (UNDP/Series A/No. 16)

    The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Compendium of Approved Projects contains a listing of ongoing UNDP-assisted projects financed under the Indicative Planning Figures (IPF), Special Program Resources, Special Measures Fund for Least Developed Countries, and Special Industrial Services. Part I of the Compendium presents summary tables for the program as a whole, classified by source of funds, type of project, sector, executing agency, region, and by country within each region. In Part II the following information is shown for each approved project, listed by country: Executing agency; date of approval; estimated completion date; and estimated project cost in US dollars, equivalent, including UNDP contribution, 3rd-party and government cost-sharing, and government contribution in cash and kind. The cost-sharing component of projects has been separated from "government inputs in cash and in kind" in Part II. Part III provides information on approved intercountry projects (regional, interregional, and global). Following Part III is detailed information on the participants in intercountry projects. Part IV presents a detailed listing of all projects with 3rd-party cost sharing and the donor. Program categories include: political affairs; general development issues, policy, and planning; natural resources; argriculture, forestry, and fisheries; industry; transport and communications; international trade and development; population; human settlements; healthl; education; employment; humanitarian aid and relief; social conditions and equity; culture; and science and technology.
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  5. 5

    Country reports on five key asylum countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Clark L

    MIGRATION NEWS. 1987 Jul-Dec; 36(3/4):24-63.

    This is the 2nd in a series of 3 papers concerning refugees in Eastern and Southern Africa. It contains in-depth information on the refugee situations in Djibouti, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In Djibouti, political and material constraints have made all 3 durable solutions--voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement to a 3rd country--problematic. Djibouti may be a harbinger for a danger that could face refugees in many other countries of the world, the danger that the inability to find durable solutions for the refugees, or even any viable self-sufficiency programs, may lead to frustration with their presence, which could turn into erosion of support for the provision of asylum itself. If only to avoid the creation of such extreme solutions as "humane deterrence," there is a need for increased attention to problems created in the care-and-maintenance phase of refugee operations rather than just to the difficulties of relief assistance and attaining durable solutions. Because Somalia contains 1 of the world's largest care-and-maintenance populations, there has been considerable discussion of how to help the refugees attain self-sufficiency. What successes there have been so far have been in agriculture; other income-generating projects have been unsuccessful, often producing inferior goods of higher price. A possible rapprochement between Somalia and Ethiopia may lead to changed circumstances which could draw refugees back home to Ethiopia or it may merely lead to their chilly reception by the Somali government. Tanzania has long been looked to for positive models concerning how to promote local integration of refugees through rural settlements. The approaches taken in Tanzania have been much more successful in dealing with economic viability than they have been in dealing with integration. It is rare to hear an assistance official in a settlement mention any concrete steps that are being taken to promote integration, as opposed to not angering the local population by excluding them from the benefits of the settlement's infrastructure. The durable solution which has been applied to most of the refugees in Zambia has been local integration, either spontaneously among ethnic kin, or through living in one of the official settlements. The 4 camps which exist at present in Zimbabwe are all fairly small; this small size, along with the competence of both government and UN officials and the positive relationship between Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in general and the energy of the refugees themselves, have all contributed to giving the camps the reputation of being well-run, leading to the concern that they are run, too well.
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  6. 6

    International institutional mechanisms for refugees.

    McLean SA

    In: U.S. immigration and refugee policy: global and domestic issues. Edited by Mary M. Kritz. Lexington, Mass., Lexington Books, 1983. 175-189.

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