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In: Population policy: contemporary issues, edited by Godfrey Roberts. New York, New York/London, England, Praeger, 1990. 179-91.The primary role of the World Bank is to assist Third World governments in the economic and social development process. Given the World Bank's view that reductions in fertility and mortality will lead to improvements in productivity, GNP growth, and maternal-child health, its population activities are focused on encouraging governments to adopt fertility decline as a national development objective and on providing loans for implementing population programs. The Bank's sector work, including country economic reports and population sector analyses, has been most ambitious in countries where there was no population policy or program, especially sub-Saharan African countries. Even in pronatalist countries, this sector work has been instrumental in leading to an open discussion of population issues. In other countries, such as Indonesia, the Bank's population sector work has been instrumental in helping governments to develop and implement a population program. Through the World Bank's access to the highest levels of government and its links to a wide range of ministries, it is in a position to influence governments by providing information about the seriousness of the population problem. In Africa, this type of dialogue has been facilitated through a series of regional senior policy and management-level seminars. The Bank is further able to shape policy development through its involvement in project identification and implementation. In recent years, Bank-funded projects have placed greater emphasis on management, institution building, demand-generation activities, and involvement of the private sector in service delivery. In the area of research, the Bank's current priority is the internal efficiency of alternative policy and program strategies. Evaluations have identified the policy dealogue that links population issues with other aspects of development as the World Bank's most effective role.
JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1986 Jun; (9):193-212.Population studies have been well developed in many countries of the world, but not so in Taiwan. Many academic people and general citizens in the Taiwan area are still not very familiar with the significance of population research within and outside of the nation. The purpose of this paper is to help readers understand the importance and development situation and trend of the field of population studies, so that they can be motivated to carry out population research and can become more knowledgeable of institutions and organizations both in Taiwan and abroad. Important concepts of the development and trend of population studies presented in this paper are developed by the author after many years of population study. Most sources used in this paper are secondary, and appear in various population references and documents of population organizations. The paper includes 3 main parts: the importance of population studies, the development of population studies in Taiwan, and international population research and sponsoring organizations and agencies. In the 1st part, the important need for population studies has been comprehensively discussed. In the 2nd part, discussions are extended to 3 subjects government's role on data collection and data analysis, teaching and research developments in acdemic institutions, and the role of private organizations in the promotion and application of population studies. In the 3rd part, more than 70 international institutions and agencies of population studies have been introduced and examined. Partticular attention has been paid to characteristics and functions of 3 organizations: UN Population Divisions, IUSSP, and CICRED. In addition, many other international public and private agencies in different countries have been listed and their locations mentioned. In this paper, discussion has not focused on the development of population in the US. It is because the development status in the US is unusually important and requires a separate, special report. The author has made such a report on population studies in the US a decade ago, and it will not be repeated here. (author's modified) (summary in ENG)