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London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2015 Nov. 20 p.The purpose of this paper is to set out what the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development means for civil society organizations (CSOs) working on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and how it can be used to push for progress at the national level. It details those targets that are relevant to our work, looks at how they relate to existing programmes and commitments and suggests ways to ensure that they are implemented. It describes specific actions that national advocates may want to consider taking to drive progress on the development and implementation of national plans, to play a role in monitoring and accountability of global commitments, and to support the measurement of progress. There is no “one size fits all” approach to implementing the Agenda at a national level because every country has a different system and way of working, and will have different focus areas with respect to sustainable development. Advocates are encouraged to use the information and recommendations in this paper in a way that is helpful to their national context, and to adapt them to reflect their circumstances.
From the first hour of life: making the case for improved infant and young child feeding everywhere.
2016 Oct; New York, New York, UNICEF, 2016 Oct. 104 p.Food and feeding practices from birth to age 2 have a profound impact on the rest of a child’s life. Good nutrition helps children exercise their rights to grow, learn, develop, participate and become productive members of their communities. This report provides a global status update on infant and young child feeding practices, and puts forth recommendations for improving them.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005.  p. (World Bank Working Paper No. 68)In recent years, Europe and Central Asia has experienced the world’s fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Yet, in the Western Balkan countries the HIV prevalence rate is under 0.1 percent, which ranks among the lowest. This may be due to a low level of infection among the population—or partly due to inadequate surveillance systems. All major contributing factors for the breakout of an HIV/AIDS epidemic are present in the Western Balkans. HIV/AIDS disproportionably affects youth (80 percent of HIV-infected people are 30 years old or younger). Most of the Western Balkan countries have very young populations, which have been affected by the process of social transition, wars, unemployment and other factors. Among youth, there is generalized use of drugs and sexual risk behavior. Therefore, the number of cases of HIV has been increasing, especially in Serbia, and the incidence of Hepatitis C has clearly increased, which suggests that sharing of infected needles is practiced by injecting drug users. Apart from human suffering, an HIV/AIDS epidemic can have a significant impact on costs of care for individuals, households, health services and society as a whole. This study has found weak public health systems and gaps in financing and institutional capacity necessary to implement evidence-based and cost-effective HIV/AIDS Strategies. Political commitment must increase for action to occur promptly. Prevention interventions are cost effective and, in the short term, affordable with own-country resources. Medium- and long-term interventions would require donor assistance. Longer-term interventions would aim at preventing poverty, exclusion and unemployment, for example, by empowering young people to participate in the regional and global labor market.
Global Call to Action: Maximize the public health impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa.
Malaria Journal. 2015; 14:207.Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy is a highly cost-effective intervention which significantly improves maternal and birth outcomes among mothers and their newborns who live in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. However, coverage in sub-Saharan Africa remains unacceptably low, calling for urgent action to increase uptake dramatically and maximize its public health impact. The ‘Global Call to Action’ outlines priority actions that will pave the way to success in achieving national and international coverage targets. Immediate action is needed from national health institutions in malaria-endemic countries, the donor community, the research community, members of the pharmaceutical industry and private sector, along with technical partners at the global and local levels, to protect pregnant women and their babies from the preventable, adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy © 2015 Chico et al. Open Access.
London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
Mobile technologies and empowerment: Enhancing human development through participation and innovation.
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2012.  p.Mobile technologies are opening new channels of communication between people and governments, potentially offering greater access to public information and basic services to all. No other technology has been in the hands of so many people in so many countries in such a short period of time. In fact, globally, more people now have access to a mobile device than to justice or legal services. Recent estimates indicate that ICTs could be accessible to everyone by 2015 and bring internationally agreed development targets ever closer to achievement. Indeed, we are witnessing a new wave of democratization of access to innovative ICT channels, propelled by state-of-the-art technologies and diminishing barriers to entry. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have set forth global commitments to foster human development across the world. One of the targets calls for making the benefits of ICTs available to all. If we subscribe to the latest figures on mobile usage and availability then we can argue that this particular target is achievable by 2015, if not before. But how does this relate to the other 17 MDG targets, if at all, and to all other Internationally Agreed Development Goals (IADGs)? The main objective of this primer is to provide UNDP programme staff and development partners and practitioners with a practical understanding of how mobile technologies can amplify development programming. By looking at basic concepts, current trends and real life examples, the primer intends to shed light on how development practitioners can harness the potential of mobile technologies to improve development outputs and outcomes at the country level.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2010. 2 p.This brief argues that despite increases in contraceptive use since 1994, high unmet need for family planning persists. Among the most significant underserved group is a new generation of adolescents. They enter adulthood with inadequate information on sexuality and reproductive health and few skills to protect their health and rights.
Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press, 2008 Dec 15.  p.At this historic moment, the incoming Obama administration and leaders of the U.S. Congress have the opportunity to advance the welfare and prosperity of people within and beyond the borders of the United States through intensified and sustained attention to better health. The United States can improve the lives of millions around the world, while reflecting America's values and protecting and promoting the nation's interests. The Institute of Medicine-with the support of four U.S. government agencies and five private foundations-formed an independent committee to examine the United States' commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments and activities in this area.
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Nov; 7(11):705.An expert advisory group, convened by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), has concluded that it would be inadvisable to embark on a widespread pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccination programme in European countries at the present time. Pre-pandemic vaccines, currently being developed by several pharmaceutical companies, can be made ahead of the emergence of pandemic influenza virus, unlike "true" pandemic vaccines. However, experts have concluded that there remains too much uncertainty as to whether the H5N1 avian influenza virus, on which pre-pandemic vaccines currently under development are based, will ever be responsible for a pandemic. According to Johan Giesecke (ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden), "If there is an H5N1-based pandemic, the strategy of having stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccines, even if the vaccines incompletely match the pandemic virus, may prevent more infections and deaths than waiting for specific "true" pandemic vaccines...however, there is no guarantee that the next human influenza pandemic will evolve from the current H5N1 avian influenza virus". (excerpt)
Commentary: From scarcity to abundance: Pandemic vaccines and other agents for "have not" countries.
Journal of Public Health Policy. 2007; 28(3):322-340.The recent impasse between the Indonesian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) over sharing H5N1 viruses in return for access to affordable pandemic vaccines highlights slow progress in defining an antigen sparing vaccine formulation, developing licensing requirements that meet the needs of populations and obtaining government funding for vaccine trials. Currently, vaccine-producing countries would have difficulty producing enough doses for their own people and few doses would be left over for non-producing ("have not") countries. Yet within a few months of the onset of a new pandemic, several billion doses of live-attenuated and recombinant hemagglutinin H5 vaccines could be produced for "have not" countries, provided a new and disruptive system of "top down" management could be organized. In its absence, a "bottom-up" alternative that uses widely available and inexpensive generic agents like statins must be considered. The "have not" countries must continue to put pressure on WHO and leading countries to ensure that they will have access to the interventions they will need. (author's)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Sep. 108 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 14(A))Since mid-2005, hundreds of civilians have been killed, more than 10 thousand houses burned, and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes in terror to live in desperate conditions deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic (CAR). Bordering eastern Chad and war-ravaged Darfur in Sudan, this area has been destabilized by at least two major rebellions against the government of President Francois Bozize. The vast majority of summary executions and unlawful killings, and almost all village burnings, have been carried out by government forces, often in reprisal for rebel attacks. While both main rebel groups have been responsible for widespread looting and the forced taxation of the civilian population in areas they control - and rebels in the northeast have committed killings, beatings, and rape - their abuses pale in comparison to those of the Central African Armed Forces (Forces armees Centrafricaines, FACA) and the elite Presidential Guard (Garde presidentielle, GP). As the International Criminal Court (ICC) begins investigations into atrocities committed during the 2002-2003 rebellion against former President Patasse, it should also investigate possible war crimes under its jurisdiction committed in the current round of fighting. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2007 Jul-Aug; 52(4):398-405.Although numerous health care interventions have been implemented in Pakistan, the high maternal and neonatal mortality rates still remain a challenge. Developed countries have reduced maternal and neonatal mortality rates by improving the skill and knowledge levels of nurse-midwives. This paper reviews maternal and neonatal health issues, challenges in current midwifery education, and the role of government and international agencies in Pakistan. The exact maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Pakistan are unknown; a census has not occurred since 1998, and data provided in more recent studies were presented in summary format. A number of factors that contribute to the high mortality rate could easily be controlled by using competent nurse-midwives throughout all levels of the Pakistani health care system. A reduction in the maternal mortality rate is likely to occur if the Pakistan government and international agencies work together to implement specific recommendations in maternal and neonatal health. These recommendations include: 1) holding an invitational conference; 2) strengthening the existing midwifery and Lady Health Visitor curricula; 3) pilot testing an expanded midwifery program; and 4) advocating for and obtaining political commitments and resources for midwifery education. (author's)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
Monitoring and evaluating actions implemented to confront AIDS in Brazil: civil society's participation.
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:88-93.The United Nations Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS recommends that governments conduct periodic analysis of actions undertaken in confronting the HIV/ AIDS epidemic that involve civil society's participation. Specific instruments and mechanisms should be created towards this end. This paper examines some of the responses of the Brazilian government to this recommendation. Analysis contemplates the Declaration's proposals as to civil society's participation in monitoring and evaluating such actions and their adequacy with respect to Brazilian reality. The limitations and potentials of MONITORAIDS, the matrix of indicators created by Brazil's Programa Nacional de DST/AIDS [National Program for STD/AIDS] to monitor the epidemic are discussed. Results indicate that MONITORAIDS's complexity hampers its use by the conjunction of actors involved in the struggle against AIDS. The establishment of mechanisms that facilitate the appropriation of this system by all those committed to confronting the epidemic in Brazil is suggested. (author's)
Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Mission to Mexico.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2006 Jan 13. 26 p. (E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.4)The present report contains the findings of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences on her mission to Mexico, which took place from 21 to 25 February 2005. It addresses the diverse forms of violence against women in the country and identifies key measures and initiatives needed to ensure the protection and promotion of the rights of women and the elimination of violence against women. The Government of Mexico is party to a range of international standards that provide women with protection, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women. While the different levels of Government have taken significant steps towards fulfilling their international obligations, there is a need to do more to improve the police and justice sectors as well as the coordination between federal and State levels. The present report makes the case that the high levels of violence against women in Mexico are both consequence and symptom of widespread gender discrimination and inequality. Additional layers of discrimination on the basis of national origin, ethnicity or socio-economic status coupled with a lack of equal access to State protection intersect with gender discrimination and make some groups of women - namely migrant, poor and indigenous women - particularly vulnerable to violence. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Apr; 84(4):327-332.Every year, WHO produces the World health report: the 2005 report concentrated on maternal, neonatal and child health. But what is the value of these reports? Are they ritualistic publications designed to promote WHO, or are they worthy of proper discussion and debate? One would think that given the current crises in global health, the annual report of the UN's primary agency for health would be important. However, unless there is evidence that these reports are taken seriously, discussed and debated, and shown to have an effect, a conclusion might be drawn that they are largely insignificant. And that would consign WHO to a level of insignificance that it does not warrant. In this discussion of the 2005 report, I aim to provoke a response from both WHO and the international health community to demonstrate that the annual World health reports are meaningful. Furthermore, I suggest here that WHO shows its commitment to the recommendations of the 2005 report by monitoring how well recommendations have been taken forward. (author's)
Forced Migration Review. 2005 Jul; (Spec No):12-14.The tsunami was a tragic reminder that some people are always more vulnerable than others. The vast majority who lost their lives were people living in poverty, forced to live in inadequate housing along the shoreline. In the Maldives – which had only been removed from the UN’s least developed country category six days before the disaster – it was the poor, who do not have bank accounts and so keep money at home, who lost the most. Damage to the island republic has been estimated at 62% of GDP and is expected to reduce the country’s economic growth rate from the pre-tsunami forecast of 7.5% pa to only 1%. In all affected states initial responses to the tsunami were shaped by fears that the accumulation of dead bodies would represent a major threat to public health. Human bodies are indeed a source of emotional stress and their collection is important from a psychosocial perspective. However, efforts to explain to people that corpses do not represent an immediate health threat were half-hearted. In the general rush to dispose of bodies many traditional ritual practices were set aside, leading to a lingering sense of guilt that will need to be addressed through counselling. (excerpt)
Global Task Team on Improving AIDS Coordination among Multilateral Institutions and International Donors. Final report.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Jun 14. 32 p.The Global Task Team recognizes that the world must do more to effectively tackle AIDS in the years to come. Strengthening coordination, alignment and harmonization, in the context of the “Three Ones” principles, UN reform, the Millennium Development Goals, and the OECD/DAC Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, is essential for rapid scale-up of the AIDS response. National ownership of plans and priorities is the overarching rubric that efforts to harmonize and align must support and under which coordination efforts should occur. Within this rubric, the Global Task Team has focused primarily on ways UN system organizations and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria can rapidly improve the alignment and quality of their support to national AIDS responses, make money currently available work for people infected and affected by HIV, and ultimately support the scale-up of prevention and treatment programmes. The recommendations are presented under four main headings: 1. Empowering inclusive national leadership and ownership 2. Alignment and harmonization 3. Reform for a more effective multilateral response 4. Accountability and oversight. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..Over the past fifteen years, there has been increasing evidence of the advantages of involving “the beneficiaries” in the development process. From a relatively passive involvement as providers of information, this involvement has changed both quantitatively and qualitatively, so that it is now accepted that the stakeholders should be involved in all stages of the process from design to implementation and evaluation. Through such involvement, civil society, especially the poor, effectively become partners in the project and the development process. The Urban Management Programme (UMP), a joint programme of UN-HABITAT, UNDP and the World Bank, has extended this principle to other domains of governance, partly out of recognition that government alone is not able to decide on the priority issues and the future vision for the city. More significantly, bringing the civil society into the development process as partners provides more than just additional resources. The increase in commitment, knowledge and expertise plus the shared sense of ownership provide better chances for successful outcomes. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2005 Jan 21. 22 p.Since February 2003, Darfur has been the scene of massive crimes against civilians of particular ethnicities in the context of an internal conflict between the Sudanese government and a rebel insurgency. Almost two million people have been forcibly displaced and stripped of all their property and tens of thousands of people have been killed, raped or assaulted. Even against this backdrop of extreme violence against civilians, several incidents in March 2004 stand out for the extraordinary level of brutality demonstrated by the perpetrators. In one incident, Sudanese government and “Janjaweed” militia forces detained and then conducted mass executions of more than 200 farmers and community leaders of Fur ethnicity in the Wadi Saleh area of West Darfur. In a second incident in neighboring Shattaya locality, government and militia forces attacked Fur civilians, detained them in appalling conditions for weeks, and subjected many to torture. To date, the Sudanese government has neither improved security for civilians nor ended the impunity enjoyed by its own officials and allied militia leaders. Immediate action including an increased international presence in rural areas of Darfur is needed to improve protection of civilians and reverse ethnic cleansing. International prosecutions are also essential to provide accountability for crimes against humanity and ensure justice for the victims in Darfur. The Sudanese government is clearly unwilling and unable to hold perpetrators of atrocities to account: a presidential inquiry into abuses recently disputed evidence of widespread and systematic abuses and instead of prosecutions, recommended the formation of a committee. The United Nations Security Council, following receipt of the January 25th report of the international commission of inquiry’s investigation into violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and allegations of genocide in Darfur, should promptly refer the situation of Darfur to the International Criminal Court for prosecution. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 1998. 16 p. (ICRW Working Paper No. 6)How is it that 556 million women and girls throughout the world are illiterate, and this is not viewed as a violation of their right to education? When 600,000 women die annually as a result of complications of pregnancy, and an additional 18 million women suffer from pregnancy-related morbidities that go untreated, how is this not seen as a failure of governments to meet their obligations to promote, protect, and fulfill women's rights to the most basic attainable standard of health? How can the feminization of poverty be viewed as anything less than a violation of women's rights to an adequate standard of living, equal access to employment, credit, property, and training? These alarming statistics constitute the foundation of the literature on women in development (WID), and are generally referred to as "the state of the world's women." The time has come to call these realities what they truly are: human rights violations. It is fitting that the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights--adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly in 1948--comes at a time when a new discourse on human rights and development is emerging. This new thinking is especially important to the field of women in development, as it holds the potential of launching a revitalized effort toward ensuring gender equity and equality for the next century. This trend, however, has only recently begun to gain a sense of currency among WID researchers and practitioners. Until recently, the promotion and protection of human rights and the realization of sustainable development have been viewed as separate domains. Notably, development measures are rarely viewed as contributing to the realization of specific human rights--for example, the right to food--when that is precisely what such measures have done. (excerpt)
[Sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights. A question of human rights] Saúde sexual e reprodutiva e direitos reprodutivos. Uma questão de direitos humanos.
Sexualidade & Planeamento Familiar. 2001 Nov-Dec; (32):45-52.There is currently an international consensus that reproductive rights are human rights. In the work, it is defended that, although the governments have taken some steps to guide and broaden the services in order to better satisfy the sexual and reproductive health needs of the populations, to advance equality and parity between the sexes and to promote reproductive rights, it is necessary to do much more to make health and reproductive rights a reality for women and men in the entire world. The UN Conference and the agreement about reproductive health (RH) and reproductive rights (RR). Any of the global Conferences that the UN holds in this decade - each one focusing on an important, different and particular question - amplifies the same common message: that to have success, the development efforts should be centered on the people. Ensuring human rights and satisfying the basic necessities of the people are the first critical steps in the resolution of global problems. The right to development itself included key elements such as broadening the access of the population to basic social services and sustaining means of life, balancing the interaction between people, resources and the environment and equitably reconciling the needs of the present with those of future generations. (excerpt)
[Report. Is sexual and reproductive health a key issue in policy proposals? The parties respond] Memoria. ¿Es la salud sexual y reproductiva un tema clave en las propuestas políticas? Los partidos responden.
[La Paz, Bolivia], Programa de Coordinacion de Salud Integral [PROCOSI], . 100 p.Sexual and reproductive health have a decisive influence on the entire population's quality of life. We felt it necessary to share this concern with the political parties that were presenting the country with all types of proposals structured around government plans. How could this issue not be dealt with? As a first step, we sought out political parties to provide them with oral and written information about this problem and motivate them to reflect on it. The second step was to invite them to present their opinions about the international progress made on sexual and reproductive health and about the agreements Bolivia has signed at worldwide conferences organized by the United Nations in Cairo (1994) and Beijing (1995). The third step was to encourage them to write up viable proposals to overcome the tragedy of high maternal mortality rates in Bolivia. These were ways to approach the issue, since covering it in all its extension is not possible. (excerpt)
Women's empowerment, gender equality and the Millennium Development Goals: a WEDO information and action guide.
New York, New York, WEDO, .  p.The United Nations has been a key forum for women’s advocacy. From the 1975 UN International Year on Women through the Decade on Women (1976-1985) and the global conferences and summits of the 1990s women participated actively to shape economic, social, and political development. In these settings advocates established strategic mechanisms, influenced resolutions and won crucial commitments to set a farreaching global policy agenda that recognizes gender equality and women’s empowerment as essential components of poverty eradication, human development and human rights. The Millennium Declaration reflects widespread international acknowledgement that empowerment of women and the achievement of gender equality are matters of human rights and social justice. It is another indication of the successful efforts of women to put gender on the global policy agenda. (excerpt)