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London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
[Unpublished] 2012 Sep 11.  p. (A/RES/66/288)Recalling its resolution 64/236 of 24 December 2009, in which it decided to organize, in 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at the highest possible level, as well as its resolution 66/197 of 22 December 2011, 1. Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government and the people of Brazil for hosting the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro from 20 to 22 June 2012, and for providing all the necessary support; 2. Endorses the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled “The future we want”, annexed to the present resolution. (Excerpt)
Rio+20. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012. Agenda item 10. Outcome of the conference. The future we want.
[Unpublished] 2012 Jun 19.  p. (A/CONF.216/L.1)We, the Heads of State and Government and high-level representatives, having met at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 22 June 2012, with the full participation of civil society, renew our commitment to sustainable development and to ensuring the promotion of an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable future for our planet and for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
Kobe, Japan, WHO, Centre for Health Development, 2010.  p.This report exposes the extent to which certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from a wide range of diseases and health problems. This report provides information and tools to help governments and local leaders reduce health inequities in their cities. The objective of the report is not to compare rural and urban health inequities. Urban health inequities need to be addressed specifically for they are different in their magnitude and in their distribution.For the first time in human history, the majority of the world’s population is living in urban areas, and this proportion continues to grow. Cities concentrate opportunities, jobs and services, but they also concentrate risks and hazards for health. The rapid increase of people living in cities will be among the most important global health issues of the 21st century. Urban growth has outpaced the ability of governments to build essential infrastructures, and one in three urban dwellers lives in slums or informal settlements. In all countries, certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from poor health, and these inequities can be traced back to differences in their social and living conditions. To unmask the full extent of urban health inequities, it is important to disaggregate health and health determinants data within cities. Unless urgent action is taken to address urban health inequities, countries will not achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goal targets. Acting on urban health inequities requires the involvement of organized communities and all levels of government -- local, provincial and national. Solutions often lie beyond the health sector, and require the engagement of many different sectors of government and society. Local leaders and governments can and should play a key role in promoting urban health equity. (Excerpts)
Childhood. 2008 Aug; 15(3):379-395.This article discusses the complexities of aid-giving using the example of early childhood policies in Namibia. It supports a critical view of aid processes and of World Bank endeavours in particular. Using an analysis of the World Bank funded education sector-wide improvement plan (ETSIP) in Namibia and three Namibian local case studies, it shows how the local circumstances of young children and their parents are ignored in order to fit in with donor preconceptions, and how senior officials come to adopt those views. It argues that universally derived policies on early childhood development are misapplied, and poverty and inequality are ignored in the search for technocratic solutions. (author's)
Health Policy and Development. 2004 Apr; 2(1):30-32.On the eve of the 3rd millennium, stock was taken of PHC and health sector reforms. The results of a shocking failure of previously advocated goals were evident. Therefore a new set of goals and mechanisms were adopted under Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are 8: on hunger, education, gender disparity, child mortality, maternal mortality, HIV/AIDS, safe drinking water and partnership. They have implications for multi-laterals as well as for national Governments. Multi-laterals are expected to implement unified and harmonized programmes. Governments are also expected to improve governance, respect the law and mobilise resources for social investment. Recent reviews do not show that much progress has been made. But perhaps it is still too early. What seems to be missing though is a powerful lobby for the implementation of MDGs. (author's)
Choices. 2001 Dec; 1.As UNDP's Goodwill Ambassador to combat poverty, I am deeply aware of the link between poverty and AIDS. Poor people suffer more from disease, and HIV/ AIDS creates more poverty. Being poor is hard enough, but poverty added to a deadly disease is nothing short of a disaster for families and whole communities. Since HIV/ AIDS is found especially among the youngest and most active, the more it spreads, the more people in the prime of life must stop working and support those who depend on them. The results are devastating for low-income families. HIV/AIDS is becoming a major development problem affecting all sectors of society and, even worse, it is wiping out the progress made thus far. While it has been possible to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS in rich countries through prevention campaigns and investment in research and treatment, things have been very different in many poor countries. In the poorest countries, many have no access to information that could prevent infection, and those who are infected do not have the drugs that could give them a few more precious years to live. (excerpt)
In: Global health and governance. HIV / AIDS, edited by Nana K. Poku and Alan Whiteside. Basingstoke, England, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003 Dec. 109-122.Today in much of Africa economic growth has slowed and living standards for the majority have suffered in the face of rising unemployment and mass poverty, resulting in incomes that are presently below the 1970 level. One problem that has been the focus of much attention and contention over the past 20 years is the huge foreign debt owed by African countries to bilateral donors and multilateral institutions. Debt servicing is consuming a disproportionate amount of scarce resources at the expense of the provision of basic services to the poor. In order to receive help in servicing their debts, countries must agree to implement structural economic reforms. This often entails drastic cuts in social expenditures, the privatisation of basic services, and the liberalisation of domestic trade consistent with WTO rules. These policy decisions have had a direct impact on the capacity of African countries to promote, fulfill and protect the right to health of their citizens. This is further compounded by ill-conceived privatisation of basic services such as water and health services, without any regard for the ability of the poor to access these essential services at a cost they can afford. Finally, adherence to WTO trade rules, which often comes as an extension of liberalisation policy, hampers the capacity of African governments to produce or purchase less expensive generic drugs for their citizen without fear of retaliation from the developed countries. (author's)
In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 17-36. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)This paper considers the consequences the HIV/AIDS pandemic is having on education, within the context of the global poverty discourse. It considers the scale and scope of the pandemic and its anticipated impact on learners, educators and education systems particularly in heavily-infected sub-Saharan Africa countries. It looks for lessons derived from 20 years of coping with HIV/AIDS in the SADC region. It includes proposals for improving the education sector's response to the pandemic in order to protect education provision and quality, and to mitigate the distress of increasing numbers of orphans and other vulnerable children. (author's)
Poverty may lessen by 2000, except in Africa - according to World Bank's 'World Development Report 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s. [La pobreza puede reducirse para el año 2000, salvo en África, de acuerdo con el Informe sobre Desarrollo Mundial de 1990 del Banco Mundial. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where poverty is not likely to decline by the year 2000, the World Bank says. While 400 million people elsewhere could rise from poverty by the beginning of the twenty-first century if the Bank's two-pronged strategy is adopted, high fertility rates in Africa would still make the number of the poor swell by nearly 100 million. The Bank's World Development Report 1990 states that family planning services are vital for poverty reduction, especially where a high population growth rate--such as the 3 to 4 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa-- depresses per capita income which results in low wages and growing poverty. The Report forecasts that some 265 million people, or 43.1 per cent of the population of Africa, south of the Sahara, would live in poverty in the year 2000. In 1985, the figure was 180 million (46.8 per cent). "By the end of the century, sub-Saharan Africa will account for more than 30 per cent of the developing world's poor, as against 16 per cent in 1685." (excerpt)
Poverty - World Bank's 'World Development Report - 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..The World Bank has dedicated its thirteenth annual global development study to an exhaustive examination of the "poorest of the world's poor", analysing programmes which have successfully eliminated poverty. The 260-page analysis--World Development Report 1990--first measures poverty, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and then draws lessons from the experience of countries which have successfully reduced poverty. The burden of poverty is spreading unevenly among countries, the Bank states. Nearly half of the world's poor live in South Asia, a region that accounts for roughly 30 per cent of the world's population. Sub-Saharan Africa has a smaller, but "still highly disproportionate, share of global poverty", the Report says. Within countries and regions, there are also disparate concentrations of poverty. The weight of poverty falls most heavily on women and children. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):7.The five-year Millennium review summit in September 2005 to speed up efforts aimed at achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the fight against world poverty has the support of cities and their associations around the world, including United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG). While the MDGs and targets have been formulated at the global level, there is a need to bring them back home to our cities and demonstrate clearly how they can be applied at street level. With this objective in mind, the UCLG World Council met in Beijing during June 2005 to approve the UCLG Millennium Cities and Towns Campaign and the Local Governments Millennium Declaration. This campaign aims to reach thousands of cities around the globe and the declaration is testimony to our members’ collective commitment to the MDGs. Hand-in-hand with the United Nations, we are spearheading a worldwide movement towards localising the goals and targets in our cities and towns. UNHABITAT and UCLG have signed an agreement of cooperation, of which the localizing MDGs is a core component. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):5.The Yangtze Declaration, adopted by the International Forum on Population and Development (Wuhan, China, 7-9 September), calls upon governments and international agencies to take all possible steps to fully integrate sexual and reproductive health and the HIV/AIDS program and to accord due importance to the integral relationship between reproductive health and poverty alleviation, in the context of the review of implementation of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2005. About 400 participants from more than 50 countries met in Wuhan, capital of Central China’s Hubei Province, to mark the 10th anniversary of both the International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) and the Partners in Population and Development, an intergovernmental alliance of 21 countries dedicated to promotion and strengthening of south-south collaboration in population and development. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Sep-Oct; 6(3):6-7.We, the members of an alliance of developing countries, Partners in Population and Development, composed of more than half of the population of the world and a fifth of its land area, and many other developing countries, attended the 2004 International Forum on Population and Development . . . to review the implementation of the Program of Action adopted at the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD/PoA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in our countries, on the occasion of the 10th Anniversary of both the ICPD and that of Partners in Population and Development (PPD). (excerpt)
Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):106-108.The year 2005 is a pivotal year for ensuring that sexual and reproductive health are fully addressed in the implementation and monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). When the MDGs were developed following the Millennium Summit in 2000, no goal was included on sexual and reproductive health, for reasons that are now history. Matters that have an impact on, or are components of, sexual and reproductive health were included – maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, gender equality and education – but sexual and reproductive health were left out. This year, however, there are real opportunities to redress the imbalance and to ensure that sexual and reproductive health are there for the rest of the time earmarked for the implementation of the MDGs, i.e. in the ten years to 2015. Targets and indicators were set shortly after the MDGs were agreed. As far as maternal health was concerned the target set was the reduction of maternal mortality by two-thirds and for HIV/AIDS of halting and beginning to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, both by 2015. Whole other areas are not included, however, especially access to contraceptive services. There is an increasing trend among donor governments to tie development aid to the MDGs, and to use monitoring of implementation of the MDGs for this purpose. Hence, implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development 1994 would be more easily achieved if targets for achieving sexual and reproductive health were fully integrated into the MDG process. (excerpt)
Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
Rethinking aid to urban poverty reduction: lessons for donors. [Reformulación de la ayuda para la reducción de la pobreza urbana: lecciones de los donantes]
London, England, International Institute for Environment and Development, Human Settlements Programme, 2001.  p. (Environment and Urbanization Brief No. 3)SUMMARY: This paper discusses what has been learnt from the experience of bilateral aid agencies and development banks in urban areas. It considers how urban poor groups might assess such agencies, drawing on studies of projects funded by the World Bank, US AID, UNICEF, NORAD, DFID and Sida. It high-lights issues that international donors have to address if they are to become more effective at reducing urban poverty: Recognizing the multiple deprivations faced by low-income groups and broadening their approach to poverty reduction; Moving from a focus on projects to supporting processes and changing institutional structures that help reduce urban poverty; Reducing the distance between donor decision-making structures and urban poor groups and developing greater transparency and accountability ‘downwards’ to these groups; and Developing new channels to support ‘better local governance’ and to provide support direct to community organizations. This paper also describes the kinds of changes needed within urban governments to make them more effective partners both for donor agencies and for urban poor groups. (author's)
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1998 Sep; 24(3):664-6.The 1997 Asian financial crisis began in Thailand and spread rapidly to other countries of eastern and southeastern Asia, acquiring broader economic and political dimensions. No country has been worse affected by the crisis than Indonesia, where the economy has suffered a major contraction, the currency has depreciated by approximately 80%, capital has fled, and there have been widespread corporate insolvencies, disruption of trade and distribution systems, and a major decline in living standards. Riots in Jakarta and some other cities, targeted especially at businesses owned by Chinese Indonesians, caused considerable mortality and physical destruction. Compounding factors were drought leading to crop losses and forest fires earlier in 1997, and uncertainty over the country's future leadership. The rise in food and fuel prices in the context of growing unemployment increased the proportion of impoverished households in the country. Health services and education became less attainable by the masses. The nearest comparable experience in Indonesia's history was the Great Depression. Both fertility and mortality rates may decline.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):32-4.The IPPF President asks his fellow Africans to look inward to find sources and solutions to the continent's problems. They can no longer blame colonialism and the international community for its problems, but should realize the governments of African countries which had little regard for their own people have misused government resources and not invested in people. Further the 1 party state is no longer effective at solving Africa's problems and people in many countries are beginning to prefer a multiparty democracy. In addition, 11% of the world's population inhabit Africa but Africa takes part in only 2% of the international trade. Africa's population growth rate is >3%/year and in 1992 it had almost 500 million people, yet the gross national product of the continent equals that of Belgium, a country of 10 million people. Development will need to come from Africans so governments must 1st develop its human resources base such as implementing policies that releases the entrepreneurial spirit, providing universal education, and training high levels professionals including planners, engineers, and entrepreneurs. In fact, military expenditures should be curtailed to make room for the much need development efforts. Further African governments must give priority to developing effective population and family planning programs. African population and family planning experts should convince government officials of the need to appropriate funds to these programs. Governments must also confront the problem of AIDS, but not at the expense of investment and general health programs. The 1990s are the last opportunity for Africa to mobilize its people, especially women and children, to pull itself out of poverty and despair.
In: World population crisis: the United States response, by Phyllis T. Piotrow. New York, New York, Praeger, 1973. vii-ix. (Law and Population Book Series No. 4)In this article, George H. Bush, Jr., the US Representative to the UN, expresses his support for family planning and fertility control at both the national and international level. Long aware of birth control as a public policy issue, Bush recalls how in 1950 his father lost a US Senate race when his opponent disclosed that the elder Bush supported Planned Parenthood, a family planning organization. But the previously taboo subject of birth control now demands public discussion, says Bush. With a 2% annual increase, the world's population of 4 billion is increasing by 80 million every year. Higher birth rates in poor countries have widened the income gap between developed and developing countries. While a member of the US House of Representative during the 1960s, Bush faced such disturbing issues as famine, unwanted pregnancies, and poverty. Finding it ridiculous that clinics and hospitals were prohibited from discussing birth control, Bush and other members of the House Ways and Means Committee took the lead in Congress to make family planning available to all women. Bush also helped repeal a law barring the mailing of birth control information and birth control devices. And when he moved to the UN, Bush saw that though the population issue was high on the agenda, it lacked some of the urgency it deserved. But having planned the 1974 World Population Conference, the UN is ready to tackle the population problem. Individual choice and responsible government represent the framework within which individuals and organizations must work. This work will be difficult, considering the large number of countries, races, and religions around the world. But addressing the population problem may help resolve such issues as peace, prosperity, and individual rights.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. , vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.
NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 1988 Oct; (188):32.One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-6.Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.