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Population and Development Review. 2006; 32 Suppl:1-51.By the end of the twentieth century, although expansion of population numbers in the developing world still had far to run, the pace had greatly slowed: widespread declines in birth rates had taken place and looked set to continue. To what degree population policies played a significant role in this epochal transformation of demographic regimes remains a matter of conjecture and controversy. It seems likely that future observers will be impressed by the essential similarities in the path to demographic modernity that successive countries have taken in the last few centuries, rather than discerning a demographic exceptionalism in the most recent period--with achievement of the latter credited to deliberate policy design. But that eventual judgment, whatever it may be, needs to be based on an understanding of how demographic change over the last half-century has been perceived and the responses it has elicited--an exercise in political demography. Such an exercise, inevitably tentative given the recency of the events, is essayed in this chapter. (excerpt)
AFRICAN POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jul-Dec; (68):1-2.In June 1995, the Joint United Nations Economic Commission for Africa/OAU/ADB Secretariat, in cooperation with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), organized a workshop on the implementation of the Dakar/Ngor Declaration and the Cairo Program of Action. Major recommendations from the workshop are summarized. Recommendations were addressed to African governments, African nongovernmental organizations (NGO), and regional and international institutions. Salient recommendations are: African governments should recommence long-term economic and social development planning, they should take steps to ensure the implementation and evaluation of national population programs, and countries should set realistic targets based upon the careful analysis of their demographic and socioeconomic conditions. NGOs should increase their efforts to favor groups with limited access to population programs, develop gender-sensitive approaches, and step up campaigns to remove legal barriers on adolescents' access to reproductive health services.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1992 Apr 1. v, 102 p.The global population assistance report for the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), 1982-90, provides background on development activities, the levels and trends in international assistance, current commitments, expenditures, types of programs funded, and future resource requirements. Numerous tables, maps, and figures in the appendix provide information on commitments and expenditures by country and region historically. The report highlights the following: 1) a record high for grants totaling US$801.8 million, 2) an increase of 12% from 1989 to 1990 in commitments, 3) the US, Japan, Norway, Germany, Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Finland, and Denmark as donors comprising 96% of commitments all increasing contributions, 4) the World Bank increasing its loan agreement from US$125 to US$169 million between 1989-90, 5) donors commiting aid in roughly equal proportions: 30% to bilateral aid, 34% to UN agencies, and 35% to nongovernmental organizations, 6) the donor contributions of population assistance as a % of Official Development Assistance dropping from 1.21% to 1.18% between 1989-90, 7) and US$9 billion/year being required in order to meet the medium projection target in 2000. Expenditure increased in Africa from US$128 to US$153 from 1989 to 1990. Stable expenditures amounted to US$208 million in Asia and the Pacific, US$92 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, and US$52 million in the Middle East and north Africa. The use of multiple channels of support means the distribution of assistance is adapted to local conditions. 66% of all exenditures go toward family planning services, 15% for information, education, and communication, and 5% for basic data collection.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1991. iv, 73 p.Nigeria has more people within its boundaries than any other nation in Africa. Since it total fertility rate is so high (6.6) and the modern contraceptive prevalence rate is so low (3.5%), its population is growing considerably (3.3%). April 1989, the Government of Nigeria officially launched its National Policy on Population which set several goals, e.g., family planning (FP) coverage to 80% of women of reproductive age and reducing the population growth rate to 2% by 2000. Part of the national overall strategy for implementing the population policy in 1992-1996 includes giving priority to activities in maternal and child health (MCH)/FP; information, education, and communication (IEC); and women's role in population and development. It also stresses collection of population data, demographic analysis, and research. For example, the last population census was in 1963 so the Government plans a census in late 1991. Nigeria has integrated FP into the MCH program within the context of primary health care. Specifically, it centers on training and using traditional birth attendants to deliver infants in a safe manner, to provide FP services (e.g., as distribution of nonprescription FP methods), and to educate women about women's health and FP using IEC techniques. Further the Government intends to institutionalize the IEC strategy at all levels. For example, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council and its corresponding State Committees have integrated population education into secondary school curricula. In addition, IEC population education activities have been extended to nonformal and adult education, such as the organized labor sector and counseling at clinics and other health facilities. The Government has set up the National Commission for Women to integrate women's issues into all sectors of national development. Donor agencies active in population activities in Nigeria include UNFPA, UNICEF, UNICEF, USAID, the World Bank, the European Economic Community, Japan, and the Netherlands.
POPULATION. 1992 Feb; 18(2):3.Bolivia's first population program is gaining support from the government and churches, according to Rainer Rosenbaum, head of UNFPA's Bolivia office. When he arrived to the country in May 1990, population issues were "almost taboo," says Rosenbaum. But since then, population issues have gained interest. Over the past 1 1/2 years, more than 50 major events (such as national conferences and government ceremonies) have included a population theme. The government is currently considering a population policy proposal, and Rosenbaum is optimistic that the country will soon adopt its first population policy. With the aid of UNFPA, the government has already set out to improve reproductive, maternal, and child health. This initiative includes activities such as training staff, distributing contraceptives, and spreading the family planning message. The government has also initiated a 5-year program that includes studies of internal and international migration and employment, efforts to improve the status of women, and educational programs for young people. Not only have the Catholic and Protestant churches not interfered with population activities, they have offered assistance in carrying out the national census scheduled to take place in May. The census will be a difficult enterprise, considering Bolivia's vast and varied geography. UNFPA has allocated some $1.3 million to support the census out of its $10 million assistance to the 5-year program. The rest of the money for the census will come from donor countries such as Sweden and Germany and from the Bolivian government itself. As Rosenbaum explains, the census is a top priority for the government, since nobody knows with any degree of reliability how many people live in the country.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1989 Jul. 30 p.The World Bank created a department to fund population programs in developing countries in 1970. Population issues are not part of the Bank's analytical and policy tasks, and many of the staff do not believe these programs are important. There is also no policy or mechanism at this time to ensure minimum funding. Management has not informed the operations staff of any strong commitment for these programs and there are no incentives for population lending. There have been no cost benefit studies of population projects, and the loans have not been made financially attractive to borrowers. The Bank needs to play a stronger role on population issues, and examine the extent to which lending can enhance population programs. It should convince developing countries that family planning is a good investment, and project this commitment to its own operations staff. Under continuing organizational changes, management of population programs have been melded into other social programs; therefore no current structure exists to evaluate and monitor these programs. The Bank needs to centralize management of population programs and expand the regional staff. To make population programs more effective, a clear strategy for population lending should be formulated. Program design should be developed from the critical needs of the project. A policy statement should be quickly developed, containing a coherent strategy for the bank's role in population work. The most crucial needs of the developing countries, on a country by country basis, must be addressed, and the Bank should no rely on health ministries solely to implement population programs. The current funding of $2.5 billion is far less than the $7.5 billion needed to provide family planning services to the developing countries; a minimum of $1 billion a year is needed for these programs.
Studies in Family Planning. 1984 Nov-Dec; 15(6/1):296-302.The international Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, met to review past developments and to make recommendations for future implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Despite the several ifferences of opinion, the degree of controversy was minor for an intergovernmental meeting of this size. The 147 government delegations at the Conference reached overall agreement on recommendations for future international commitment to expanding population efforts in the future. This review examines the recommendations of the Mexico Conference with regard to health, family planning, women in development, research, and realted issues. The total 88 recommendations wre intended to reaffirm and refine the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, and to strengthen the Plan for the next decade. Substantial improvement in development was noted including fertility and mortality declines, improvements in school enrollement and literacy rates, as well as access to health services. Economic trends, however, were much less encouraging. While the global rate of population growth has declined slightly since 1974, world population has increased by 770 million during the decade, with 90% of that increase in the developing countries. Part of the controversy at the Conference focused on the remarkable change of position by the US delegation, which largely reversed the policies expressed at Bucharest. The US delegation stated that population was a neutral issue in development, that development is the primary requirement in achieving fertility decline. Several recommendations emphasized the need to integrate population and development planning, and called for increased national and international efforts toward the eradication of mass hunger, illiteracy, and unemployment; achievement of adaquate health and nutrition levels; and improvement in women's status. The need for futher development of management, training, information, education and communication was recognized. A clear call to strenghten global efforts in population policies and programs emerged.
In: Singh JS, ed. World Population policies. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1979. 228 p.The World Population Plan of Action synthesizes major points raised at the 1974 Bucharest Conference and numerous United Nations resolutions between 1966-74. Population and development are interrelated. Individuals and couples have the rights to decide freely the number and spacing of their children and should have the knowledge and means to do so. Population policies, programs, and goals are to be formulated and implemented at the national level within the context of specific economic, social, and cultural conditions of the respective countries. International strategies cannot work unless the underprivileged of the world achieve a significant improvement in their living conditions. It is recommended that countries with population problems impeding their development establish goals for reducing population growth by 1985. A life expectancy of 50 years is another suggested 1985 goal; also infant mortality rates of less than 120/1000 live births. Networks of small and medium sized cities should be strengthened for regional development and population distribution. Fair and equitable treatment is urged for migrant workers. Population measures, data collection, and population programs should be integrated into economic plans and programs. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to $2 million in 1960 and $350 million by 1977.
New York, Population Council, 1979 Oct. 68 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 48)After outlining various problems posed by the growth or decline of population and the class of feasible means available to governments for dealing with them, the authors pose the question of whether important ethical issues are raised by interventionist policies actually in use today. These policy options are surveyed in detail and shown to fall into 3 categories of government intervention: 1) Limitations imposed on access to modern methods of fertility control. 2) Incentives and disincentives of various kinds. 3) Politically organized peer pressure. With regard to ethical issues raised by these policies, the authors invert the traditional procedure in the ethical literature of first providing an overarching ethical theory and then deducing consequences pertaining to particular issues -- in this case population controversies. Instead, they adopt a contextual and piecemeal approach to the ethical concerns which views ethics as a species of decision making, resting on agreed-upon premises and proceeding to substantive conclusions as to what sort of action should be taken in particular situations. Proceeding to examine the 3 sets of policies from this perspective, they find limitations on access and incentive programs ethically permissible provided certain safeguards and intuitive conditions are satisfied. The 2nd category -- politically organized peer pressure -- is found unethical except under stringent conditions and where other approaches have been tried first. In the final section of the paper, the authors clarify aspects of the ethical framework underlying their judgments on the policy and raise and discuss a number of subsidiary problems. (Author's)
In: International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes (ICOMP). 1975 Annual Conference Report: expanding role of the population manager, Mexico City, July 14-17, 1975. (Mahati, Philippines, 1976). p. 33-43The World Population Plan of Action listed 3 general principles: national self-determination of population objectives: the need to relate population policy to development; and the individual right to determine family size in an informed manner along with the right of each child to adequate food, care, and education. Population planning in countries that want to reduce birthrates is concerned with alternative means of reducing fertility consistent with basic human rights and national goals. This requires adequate attention to the planning process, collection of adequate statistics, persuasion, and recognition of the fact that some socioeconomic changes may actually increase the number of children. Increased income for the husband may, and increased employment for children definitely will, increase the economic and personal value of children. However, increased employment for women seems to reduce birthrates. Improved nutrition may eliminate the sterility effects of poor health and increase live births. To reduce fertility, development must distribute income evenly in the population. Female literacy must be encouraged. Infant and child mortality must be cut. The biggest need in developing countries is for an integrated approach with clear-cut targets. To achieve this objective some organization must take responsibility. There appear to be 3 major organizational alternatives: assigning the function to a ministry, adding it to a national planning agency, or establishing a separate planning board or agency. Whichever system is chose, the work to be done consists of improving demographic statistics, conducting applied research, making projections, and setting policy alternatives. A good deal of training and some technical assistance may be required. The leadership of a program is vital to its success.
In: McCoy, T.L., ed. The dynamics of population policy in Latin America. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Ballinger Publishing Co., 1974. p. 293-322United States initiative, encouragement, support, money, planning, organization, and ideas have been responsible for the family planning program in the Dominican Republic. From 1962 to 1965 the program was entirely private. In the 1965-1967 stage, demand increased, support increased, and pressure on the government to establish an official family planning policy increased. From 1967 to 1971 the government established an official program, funded it, and expanded its activities. The program has grown steadily, but it is still weak and largely ineffective. Results on national population figures have been minor. Opposition was most severe at first, due to racial and nationalistic fears of neighboring Haiti. Church and Leftist opposition remains but is less vocal. The family planning program is part of the social, cultural, developmental, and economic changes occurring in the Dominican Republic today. Reduced population growth and limited family size are more accepted now. It is doubtful whether the population program is strong enough to survive a change in regime.