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Your search found 25 Results

  1. 1
    307982
    Peer Reviewed

    Working on the impossible: early childhood policies in Namibia.

    Penn H

    Childhood. 2008 Aug; 15(3):379-395.

    This article discusses the complexities of aid-giving using the example of early childhood policies in Namibia. It supports a critical view of aid processes and of World Bank endeavours in particular. Using an analysis of the World Bank funded education sector-wide improvement plan (ETSIP) in Namibia and three Namibian local case studies, it shows how the local circumstances of young children and their parents are ignored in order to fit in with donor preconceptions, and how senior officials come to adopt those views. It argues that universally derived policies on early childhood development are misapplied, and poverty and inequality are ignored in the search for technocratic solutions. (author's)
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  2. 2
    278474

    Women's empowerment, gender equality and the Millennium Development Goals: a WEDO information and action guide.

    Women's Environment and Development Organization [WEDO]

    New York, New York, WEDO, [2004]. [8] p.

    The United Nations has been a key forum for women’s advocacy. From the 1975 UN International Year on Women through the Decade on Women (1976-1985) and the global conferences and summits of the 1990s women participated actively to shape economic, social, and political development. In these settings advocates established strategic mechanisms, influenced resolutions and won crucial commitments to set a farreaching global policy agenda that recognizes gender equality and women’s empowerment as essential components of poverty eradication, human development and human rights. The Millennium Declaration reflects widespread international acknowledgement that empowerment of women and the achievement of gender equality are matters of human rights and social justice. It is another indication of the successful efforts of women to put gender on the global policy agenda. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    077124

    Directory: partners in immunization in child survival countries.

    John Snow, Inc. Resources for Child Health Project (REACH)

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc., Resources for Child Health Project, 1988. [291] p.

    The Resources for Child Health (REACH) has produced an IMMUNIZATION DIRECTORY which describes the immunization-related roles played by the host country governments, the major donors, and the (primarily US-based) private voluntary organizations on a country-by-country basis. The primary countries highlighted in this directory are those designated by the Agency for International Development as the 22 "Child Survival Emphasis" countries. The basic data for each country includes 1) basic demographic data, 2) national policies, 3) delivery strategies, 4) technical aspects, 5) the official immunization schedule, and 5) the activities of various international agencies. Data is included for Cameroon, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Uganda, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Yemen, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and Peru.
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  4. 4
    047873

    Recommendations of the Mexico City forum.

    International Forum on Population Policies in Development Planning

    POPULI. 1987; 14(2):45-50.

    Reaffirming the basic principle of sovereignty of nations and reiterating the right of all nations to formulate and implement population and development policies in the light of their own priorities and practical circumstances the Mexico City Forum calls on governments to enhance their commitment at the highest level to the integration of population and development through appropriate political decisions. Recommendations are made regarding: population growth, including raising standards of living, improving the status of women, and reducing infant and child mortality; population distribution, including reduction in the inequities in quality of life, both perceived and actual, between urban and rural areas; and the integration of population and development policy by establishing appropriate institutional frameworks, creating awareness and promoting training and research.
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  5. 5
    162880
    Peer Reviewed

    Governance, good governance and global governance: conceptual and actual challenges.

    Weiss TG

    Third World Quarterly. 2000; 21(5):795-814.

    This article takes seriously the proposition that ideas and concepts, both good and bad, have an impact on international public policy. It situates the emergence of governance, good governance and global governance, as well as the UN's role in the conceptual process. Although `governance' is as old as human history, this essay concentrates on the intellectual debates of the 1980s and 1990s but explores such earlier UN-related ideas as decolonization, localization and human rights, against which more recent thinking has been played out. A central analytical perspective is the tension between many academics and international practitioners who employ `governance' to connote a complex set of structures and processes, both public and private, while more popular writers tend to use it synonymously with `government'. (author's)
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  6. 6
    155219
    Peer Reviewed

    Kochi's tuberculosis strategy article is a "classic" by any definition.

    Sbarbaro JA

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001; 79(1):69-70.

    This article reviews the 1991 paper by Arata Kochi on the strategy of WHO to control tuberculosis. It notes that Kochi's paper did not report a new scientific discovery, rather it depicted the devastating impact of tuberculosis around the world in a clear and forceful manner. Consequently, it changed the public health focus of WHO, national governments and leading voluntary organizations. Kochi's paper pinpointed three major programmatic deficiencies that had to be overcome: inadequate treatment services; high rates of failure to complete therapy; and the worldwide absence of adequate governmental surveillance and monitoring systems. Furthermore, the paper gave attention to the role of public health in addressing the tuberculosis issue. To address the problem, Kochi emphasized that it would take strong, directive leadership by national government to implement systems for an effective prevention and control program for tuberculosis.
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  7. 7
    143476

    Strengthening of EU policies. Forum of Parliamentarians.

    Sandbaek U

    INTEGRATION. 1999 Summer; (60):13-4.

    Collaborating closely with nongovernmental organizations, the author has been involved in social and human sustainable development since 1989. Since 1994, she has also been a member of the bureau of the European Parliament Working Group on Population, Sustainable Development and Reproductive Health. Established in 1991, the Working Group represents a cross-section of the European Unions' 15 member states and political groups. Membership is open to all interested members of Parliament. With 89 members, the group currently represents almost 14% of the European Parliament. The group is assisted by the UK nongovernmental organizational Marie Stopes International, which has provided the secretariat to the group since its inception. The author describes how the European parliamentary group has contributed to the implementation of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action.
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  8. 8
    062414

    Primary health care: reorienting organisational support.

    Ebrahim GJ; Ranken JP

    London, England, Macmillan, 1988. x, 165 p.

    Evaluations of progress made toward greater primary health care (PHC) among nations since the Alma Ata Conference of 1978 indicate that problems exist in managing PHC and reorienting existing services to PHC. The overwhelming majority of plans set forth through country policy have not been set into motion. Contributors from a host of disciplines and interests were called upon to explore manners in which countries may reorient their health services to the ideal of PHC and Health for All by the Year 2000. Prescription for change is avoided, yet a number of successful country examples are described in the text. Principles with potential application for other country setting are then explored. PHC and change is first explored, followed by a discussion of the theory and practice of organizational change. Subsequent chapters address PHC as it relates to ministries of health, district management, hospitals, medical education, nursing, intersectoral collaboration, and NGOs and international organizations. Challenges for the future close the text. Health professionals must help enable individuals, families, and communities to take the major responsibility for their health; a concept central to PHC. Continual dialogue, popular consultation, and organizational adaptation and change are required along with a bottom-up approach for setting targets and identifying needs. The authors understand that intersectoral collaboration along with administrative flexibility and adaptation are needed if goals are to be met. Finally, the health sector should get its house in order before working out the details of PHC policy.
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  9. 9
    064235

    State-society links: political dimensions of population policies and programs, with special reference to China.

    Greenhalgh S

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1990. 36 p. (Research Division Working Papers No. 18)

    This paper attempts to reveal the political nature of population policies and programs. The first step to understanding this is to classify states by strength. The greatest predictive power can be achieved by looking at the political theories in terms of sociopolitical structures and processes. The argument goes that if societal forces can effect policy in a strong state, then they can most certainly do so in a weak one. In fact the effect should be greater in the weaker states touching everything from policy content, goals and program implementation and outcomes to policy initiation and even the ability to formulate a population policy. China is a strong state, India is a soft state, countries of sub-Saharan Africa are soft-soft states. However state strength may not lead directly to program success. In China a strong policy backfired and caused a political backlash. It eventually turned around, but reached its goal in an inverted "U" rather than a straight line. A state-society point of view on population policies and programs does lack in one important way: it does not take into account international agents who fund, advise and research. It is these agents form outside that can have a profound effect on this relationship. The author's final point is that the relation of the state and society must be further studied, keeping in mind that outside forces can sometime put a spin on the results.
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  10. 10
    058714

    The World Bank's role in global population efforts: an agenda for effective action.

    Camp SL; Conly SR

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1989 Jul. 30 p.

    The World Bank created a department to fund population programs in developing countries in 1970. Population issues are not part of the Bank's analytical and policy tasks, and many of the staff do not believe these programs are important. There is also no policy or mechanism at this time to ensure minimum funding. Management has not informed the operations staff of any strong commitment for these programs and there are no incentives for population lending. There have been no cost benefit studies of population projects, and the loans have not been made financially attractive to borrowers. The Bank needs to play a stronger role on population issues, and examine the extent to which lending can enhance population programs. It should convince developing countries that family planning is a good investment, and project this commitment to its own operations staff. Under continuing organizational changes, management of population programs have been melded into other social programs; therefore no current structure exists to evaluate and monitor these programs. The Bank needs to centralize management of population programs and expand the regional staff. To make population programs more effective, a clear strategy for population lending should be formulated. Program design should be developed from the critical needs of the project. A policy statement should be quickly developed, containing a coherent strategy for the bank's role in population work. The most crucial needs of the developing countries, on a country by country basis, must be addressed, and the Bank should no rely on health ministries solely to implement population programs. The current funding of $2.5 billion is far less than the $7.5 billion needed to provide family planning services to the developing countries; a minimum of $1 billion a year is needed for these programs.
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  11. 11
    201511

    Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women in Asia and the Pacific.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. xii, 282 p. (ST/ESCAP/434.)

    Growing worldwide recognition of the unequal participation of women in development culminated in the declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year and of the subsequent 10 years as the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace (1976-1985). The present report summarizes the progress achieved for and by women in Asia and the Pacific during the UN Decade for Women. This report should be read critically since the coverage of the country responses to the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) questionnaires was uneven. The international attention directed to the issue of women and development spurred the establishment of national machineries for the promotion of women's interests in many of the Asian and Pacific countries where none had existed, and the strengthening of those already active. In Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and New Zealand, the national machinery was formed at the ministerial level. In other countries, a ministry already has the task of advancing women. In other countries, focal points are positioned directly under the leadership of the head of the executive branch. In Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and Viet Nam the responsibility has been given to the national women's organizations that emerged after radical socio-political transformations. Countries of a 4th group have attached their machineries to a sectoral ministry or organization. During the UN Decade for Women, India, Nepal, Samoa, and Thailand included for the 1st time in their planning history a separate chapter in their national development plans on the integration of women into the development process. India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand formulated separate national plans of action for the advancement of women. In other countries, including Fiji and Vanuatu, national plans of action were drafted and submitted to their governments by non-governmental women's organizations. 17 ESCAP member countries have signed, ratified, or acceded to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
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  12. 12
    049240

    Uganda.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-6.

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.
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  13. 13
    049238

    Kuwait.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.
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  14. 14
    049237

    Djibouti.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Feb; 1-7.

    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti franc, and the official exchange rate is 177 DF to US$1. Djibouti's imports amount to $230 million, most of which are consumed in the country and paid for by French economic assistance and $3 million a year from the US. Djibouti is a member of the UN, the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Nonaligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD).
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  15. 15
    049236

    Zimbabwe.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    Zimbabwe is a land-locked plateau country of 151,000 square miles, divided into 8 provinces, in Southeastern Africa, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. Its population consists of 8.8 million blacks, divided between the Shona-speaking Mashona (80%) and the Sindebele-speaking Matabele (19%), 100,000 whites, 20,000 coloreds, and 10,000 Asians. Many of the blacks are Christians. More than 1/2 the whites migrated to Zimbabwe after the Second World War at a rate of about 1000 a year until the mid-1970s; since then 12,000 whites have left the country. The official language is English, and education is free. Most African children 5-19 years old attend school, and literacy is between 40% and 50%. The University of Zimbabwe is located in Harare, the capital, and there are several technical institutes and teacher-training colleges. Zimbabwe has been inhabited since the stone age, and evidence of a high indigenous civilization remains in the "Great Zimbabwe Ruins" near Masvingo. The present black population is descended from later migrations of Bantu people from central Africa. Cecil Rhodes was granted concessions for mineral rights in the area in 1888, and the territory, which administered by the British South Africa Company, was called Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing entity within the British Empire in 1913. In 1953 Southern Rhodesia was joined with the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Central African Federation, but this dissolved in 1963, and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi in 1964. Independence was withheld from Rhodesia because Prime Minister Ian Smith refused to give Britain assurances that the country would move toward majority rule. In 1965 Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) from the UK. In 1966 the UN Security Council imposed mandatory economic sanctions on Rhodesia. Within Rhodesia the major African nationalist groups -- the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) united into the "Patriotic Front" and began to engage in guerrilla warfare against the minority government. Finally, in 1979, Rhodesia returned briefly to colonial status, during which time a new constitution was written, implementing majority rule; the UN Security Council called off economic sanctions; and elections were held. Robert Mugabe, leader of the victorious ZANU Party, was asked to form Zimbabwe's 1st government. The British Government formally granted independence to Zimbabwe on April 18, 1980. THe new government was to consist of a President (Mr. Mugabe), elected by universal suffrage, and a bicameral parliament. Zimbabwe has followed a policy of national reconciliation at home and "active nonalignment" abroad. In 1982, Zimbabwe was chosen by the Organization of African Unity to hold one of the nonpermanent seats in the UN Security Council, and in 1986, Zimbabwe was the site of the Nonaligned Movement summit meeting, and Mr. Mugabe became chairman of that organization. The years of sanctions, guerrilla warfare, and white emigration, combined with a foreign exchange crisis (the Zimbabwe dillar = US$.60), and the drought of 1987 took their toll on the Zimbabwean economy. Gross domestic product declined between 1974 and 1979, although by 1986, it was $4.7 billion, with per capita income $275. Zimbabwe is rich in natural resources, especially coal and chrome; and industry, which accounts for 69% of the gross domestic product, was forced by the sanctions to diversify. Plentiful coal deposits make the country less dependent on imported oil for an energy source. Agriculture, which constitutes 15% of the gross domestic product, is the backbone of the economy, with corn as the largest crop and tobacco as the largest export crop; both were hurt by the 1987 drought. Another drain on the economy was the money diverted to pay for training and equipping the armed forces. The British Military Assistance Training Team has been the largest source of training, but jet fighters had to be bought from China and helicopters from Italy. The United States, which broke off relations after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence, has contributed $380 million in loans and grants to Zimbabwe in the years between 1981 and 1986.
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  16. 16
    046926

    Belgium.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Sep; 1-8.

    The Kingdom of Belgium which borders on the nations of France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Federal Republic of Germany, is one of the smallest European countries and is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. The branches of its government are the executive (with a king, a prime minister, and a Council of Ministers), the legislative (a bicameral Parliament and various regional and cultural assemblies), and the judicial (a Court of Cassation modelled on the French system). 30% of Belgium's gross national product comes from machinery, iron and steel, coal, textiles, chemicals, and glass. During the 80 year period which preceded WWI, Belgium remained neutral in an era of intra-European wars until German troops overran the country during their attack on France in 1914. Some of the worst battles of that war were fought in Belgium. Again in 1940, Belgium was occupied by the Germans. There was a government-in-exile in London; however the King remained in Belgium during the war. The course of Belgian politics was determined largely by the division of the Belgian people into 2 major language groups--the Dutch speakers and French speakers. Regional and language rivalries are taken into account in all important national decisions. The 3 major political parties representing the main ideological tendencies are the Socialists, the Socialist Christians, and the Liberals. Belgium is one of the most open economies in the world and is a densely populated, highly industrialized country in the midst of a highly industrialized region. An economic austerity program was instituted at the beginning of this decade which included devaluation of the Belgian franc, reduction of government expenditures, a partial price freeze, etc. Improvements have been seen as a result of this program. Although US investment has declined in recent years, total US direct investment is estimated at $5.28 billion and there are 899 US companies currently operating in Belgium. As a member of NATO, Belgium's armed forces are part of the NATO integrated military structure. Belgium is a proponent of close cooperation with the US and they seek improved East-West relations. In this vein, Belgium works closely with the US both bilaterally and multilaterally to liberalize trade, and to foster economic and political cooperation and assistance to developing countries.
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  17. 17
    046924

    Madagascar.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Aug; 1-7.

    Madagascar, in the Indian Ocean near Mozambique, is officially known as the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. This republic has 3 branches of government and includes 6 provinces or subdivisions. Since 1981, it has received more than $62 million in grants and concessional sales from the US. There have been other types of assistance as well, including a development assistance program begun in 1985. Its population is largely of mixed Asian and African origin. There exists an historic rivalry between the Catholic coastal people, Cotiers, and the Protestant Merina, who predominate in civil service, business, and the professions. To combat this, the government has set one of its goals to be the highlighting of nationalism. The beginning of Madagascar's written history can be traced to when the Arabs established trading posts along the coastal areas. Eventually, Madagascar moved toward independence from the French and became an autonomous state in 1958. The president is elected for a 7-year term and is the head, during that time, of the Supreme Revolutionary Council. There is a 3-tiered court system, including a lower court for civil and criminal cases, a criminal court for more serious crimes, and a supreme court. The government represents a strong socialist philosophy and outright criticism of the President and his government is not tolerated. The economy of Malagasy is dominated by agriculture, which employs about 85% of the population. Although it faces some serious problems in the areas of foreign exchange and imports/exports, Madagascar is a potentially prosperous country. It boasts diversified agricultural production, it is rich in minerals, and it maintains strong commercial ties to the West. Madagascar's major trading partners are France, the US, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Soviet Union, Qatar, and Japan. Madagascar maintains the Popular Armed Forces for its defense; however, there is a heavy reliance on the Soviet Union for military equipment and training. US-Malagasy relations have been warm for most of its history until 1971 when the US ambassador and 5 members of his staff were expelled. In 1980, a new ambassador arrived and in 1981, 2 Food for Peace rice agreements were concluded. In 1986, Madagascar became the 1st African country to be the recipient of assistance under the program Food for Progress, given to nations which have undertaken successful economic reform.
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  18. 18
    205597

    Country reports on five key asylum countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Clark L

    MIGRATION NEWS. 1987 Jul-Dec; 36(3/4):24-63.

    This is the 2nd in a series of 3 papers concerning refugees in Eastern and Southern Africa. It contains in-depth information on the refugee situations in Djibouti, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In Djibouti, political and material constraints have made all 3 durable solutions--voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement to a 3rd country--problematic. Djibouti may be a harbinger for a danger that could face refugees in many other countries of the world, the danger that the inability to find durable solutions for the refugees, or even any viable self-sufficiency programs, may lead to frustration with their presence, which could turn into erosion of support for the provision of asylum itself. If only to avoid the creation of such extreme solutions as "humane deterrence," there is a need for increased attention to problems created in the care-and-maintenance phase of refugee operations rather than just to the difficulties of relief assistance and attaining durable solutions. Because Somalia contains 1 of the world's largest care-and-maintenance populations, there has been considerable discussion of how to help the refugees attain self-sufficiency. What successes there have been so far have been in agriculture; other income-generating projects have been unsuccessful, often producing inferior goods of higher price. A possible rapprochement between Somalia and Ethiopia may lead to changed circumstances which could draw refugees back home to Ethiopia or it may merely lead to their chilly reception by the Somali government. Tanzania has long been looked to for positive models concerning how to promote local integration of refugees through rural settlements. The approaches taken in Tanzania have been much more successful in dealing with economic viability than they have been in dealing with integration. It is rare to hear an assistance official in a settlement mention any concrete steps that are being taken to promote integration, as opposed to not angering the local population by excluding them from the benefits of the settlement's infrastructure. The durable solution which has been applied to most of the refugees in Zambia has been local integration, either spontaneously among ethnic kin, or through living in one of the official settlements. The 4 camps which exist at present in Zimbabwe are all fairly small; this small size, along with the competence of both government and UN officials and the positive relationship between Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in general and the energy of the refugees themselves, have all contributed to giving the camps the reputation of being well-run, leading to the concern that they are run, too well.
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  19. 19
    041767

    [South] Korea.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Apr; 1-7.

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and support to supplement Korea's efforts to deter aggression. The US also believes that talks between governments are essential if reunification will ultimately occur. South Korea is now the US' largest commercial partner and Korea seems to understand that they can benefit greatly by having increased US private sector involvement in Korea's development.
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  20. 20
    041766

    Honduras.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Feb; 1-7.

    Honduras is a democratic, constitutional republic located between Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua in Central America. Although in the early history of the nation there were frequent revolutions, Honduras has been independent throughout much of its existence. Since the decade of the 1980s, there has been close cooperation with the US including bilateral economic and security assistance, and joint military exercises. The government constitution adopted in 1982 assures that there will be a powerful executive branch, a unicameral legislature, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Following 18 years of military government, Honduras is now under civilian and constitutional rule. Its major serious concerns center around development in the economic and social spheres. Honduras is the least developed Central American country. In 1984, it became a Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary country and as a result, the research and development of nontraditional export products has grown greatly. The US has been its most important trade partner. Among others, the US and the World Bank have committed large amounts of financial resources to help Honduras. Honduras and El Salvador are attempting to come to some agreement about their mutual boundaries and Honduras is concerned about the Nicaraguan and general Central American situation. It supports the US position and policy toward Nicaragua. In response to the threats posed by some of its neighbors, Honduras has focused on developing a mobile deterrent force with strong counterterrorism capabilities. Honduras relies heavily on US material assistance and political support.
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  21. 21
    208006

    International migration.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION JOURNAL. 1986 Mar; 1(1):75-9.

    During the past few years, reports have indicated that international migration from Asia and the Pacific to the Middle East has been decreasing. To consider this trend, the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) organized the Policy Workshop on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific from 15-21 October, 1986, at Bangkok. The Workshop 1st considered the magnitude of international migration. There were an estimated 930,000 Indian workers in the Middle East in 1983, 800,000 Pakistanis, 500,000 Filipinos, 300,000 Bangladeshis, and 200,000 each from the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Workers' remittances to the region reached US $8000-10,000 million per year in 1983. The government policies of the sending countries have been the least adequate in the area of return international labor migration. The Workshop recommended that governments of sending countries 1) ensure that the contracts signed by workers before their departure be honored, 2) provide workers with information on their legal rights in receiving countries before departure, 3) investigate and monitor recruiting agents, and 4) do everything possible to utilize workers' acquired skills on return. The Workshop also recommended that international agencies 1) create standards for data collection on international migration, 2) facilitate the exchange of information on international migration, and 3) sponsor research projects. The Workshop also recommended that governments obtain relevant information on the magnitude, origin, and expenditure of remittances and savings.
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  22. 22
    041773

    New Zealand.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Mar; 1-8.

    New Zealand, located in the southwest Pacific, has a population of more than 3 million. Although populated for at least 1000 years before the arrival of the Europeans, New Zealand achieved full internal and external autonomy in 1947. Its parliamentary system of government is patterned closely on the United Kingdom. There is a 20-member cabinet led by the prime minister which has executive authority. There are 4 major political parties in New Zealand. While New Zealand is of the world's most efficient producers of economic products, the current government has undertaken an effort to reverse New Zealand economic decline by instituting a major economic reform program. Defense has traditionally occupied a very small place in the budget in New Zealand. Until recently, its defense policy has developed around the ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, United States) mutual defense treaty. They have also cooperated with the South Pacific and Southest Asian countries. New Zealand's foreign policy targets mainly the developed democratic countries and Southeast Asia. New Zealand and Australia have both political and economic relationships. Among other things, New Zealand has helped Asian countries with technical assistance. US Navy vessels have access to New Zealand ports but since July 1984, there have been certain restrictions attached to port use. Largely these restrictions are meant to ban entry to nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed warships. New Zealand is very committed to developing more extensively the political, economic, and social ties among the members of ANZUS. Information on travel, principal US officials, principal government officials, government, and economy are also included.
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  23. 23
    041772

    Japan.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Feb; 1-12.

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on the following 3 principles: 1) the US views Japan as an equal trade partner, 2) that the relationship is global in scope, and 3) that Japan has become increasingly assertive in world matters and plays a greater international role. The combined efforts of the US and Japan will be utilized to promote world peace.
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  24. 24
    199648

    The least developed countries: introduction to the LDCs and to the substantial new programme of action for them.

    Sottas E

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. ix, 157 p. (TAD/INF/PUB/84.2)

    This study presents an overview of the least developed countries (LDCs) in the context of the efforts of the international community, through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) to initiate the Substantial New Program of Action (SNPA). The SNPA, guided by the concept of the right to development of every country, no matter how poor, was unanimously adopted in 1981 as a 10 year plan to assist LDCs achieve sustained and self reliant development through their own national programs, with financial aid from donor countries. Chapter I describes the problem as a whole and its various sectors: agriculture, threats to food security, technological revolution and self-reliance, fisheries, stockfarming and forestry, manufacturing, energy, transport, and social problems. Chapter II descibes ongoing or planned structural reforms to deal with these problems, and the aid essential to carry them out. Chapter III deals, case by case, with the 36 LDCs, providing statistics and a short account of each country's situation, its geographical, economic, social and administrative conditions, and national programs or plans. The full text of the SNPA is given in an annex.
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  25. 25
    197456

    International institutional mechanisms for refugees.

    McLean SA

    In: U.S. immigration and refugee policy: global and domestic issues. Edited by Mary M. Kritz. Lexington, Mass., Lexington Books, 1983. 175-189.

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