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In: Listening to those working with communities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to achieve the UN goals for water and sanitation, [compiled by] Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council [WSSCC]. Geneva, Switzerland, WSSCC, 2004. 3-16.The basics of public health – water, sanitation, and hygiene – are now back on the international agenda. But why have decades of effort and billions of dollars of investment in water and sanitation programmes yielded so little progress? What has been learnt? What are the new approaches that work? Why are they not yet gaining traction? And what can be done to turn the tide of failure and achieve the Millennium Development Goals for water and sanitation? This introduction draws together some of the most commonly held and strongly felt views of the many contributors to this publication who have helped to pioneer the new ways forward. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1993 Dec. xii, 217,  p. (Report No. 12577-AFR)The World Bank has recommended a blueprint for health improvement in sub-Saharan Africa. African countries and their external partners need to reconsider current health strategies. The underlying message is that many African countries can achieve great improvements in health despite financial pressure. The document focuses on the significance of enhancing the ability of households and communities to identify and respond to health problems. Promotion of poverty-centered development strategies, more educational opportunities for females, strengthening of community monitoring and supervision of health services, and provision of information on health conditions and services to the public are also important. Community-based action is vital. The report greatly encourages African governments to reform their health care systems. It advocates basic packages of health services available to everyone through health centers and first referral hospitals. Health care system reform also includes improving management of health care inputs (e.g., drugs) and new partnerships between public agencies and nongovernmental health care providers. Ministries of Health should concentrate more on policy formulation and public health activities, encourage private voluntary organizations, and establish an environment conducive to the private sector. African countries need more efficient allocation and management of public financial resources for health to boost their effect on critical health indicators (e.g., child mortality). Public resources should also be reallocated from less productive activities to health activities. More commitment from governments and domestic sources and an increase of external assistance are needed for low income African countries. The first action step should be a national agenda for health followed by action planning and setting goals to measure progress.