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Your search found 18 Results

  1. 1
    320246

    Keep your head down: Unprotected migrants in South Africa.

    Kriger N

    New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Feb. 111 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 3(A))

    South Africa's vibrant and diverse economy is a powerful draw for Africans from other countries migrating in search of work. But the chance of earning a wage can come with a price: If undocumented, foreign migrants are liable to be arrested, detained, and deported in circumstances and under conditions that flout South Africa's own laws. And as highlighted by the situation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, both documented and undocumented foreign farm workers may have their rights under South Africa's basic employment law protections violated by employers in ways ranging from wage exploitation to uncompensated workplace injury, and from appalling housing conditions to workplace violence. Human Rights Watch has conducted research on the situation and experiences of migrant workers around the globe. Its research demonstrates that migrant workers, whether documented or undocumented, are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. Such abuses can be the result of many different factors includinginadequate legal protections, illegal actions of unscrupulous employers or state officials, and lack of state capacity or political will to enforce legal protections and to hold abusive employers and officials to account. The focus of this report is principally the situation of Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in South Africa's Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    071950

    Mexico.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 174-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mexico's 1985 population of 78,996,000 is projected to grow to 154,085,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 42.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.4% were over the age of 60. 24.8% and 11.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 26.8 to 11.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 65.7 to 73.2 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 7.1 to 6.4, while infant mortality will decline from 53.0 to 22.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.6 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.9 to 17.7. The 1982 contraceptive prevalence rate was 48.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.6 years. Urban population will increase from 69.6% in 1985 to 84.4% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Mexico has an explicit population policy. Integrated with development plans, policy aims to reduce population growth largely by reducing fertility. Attention is also given to adjusting spatial distribution, and improving women's status, the quality of life, and social equity. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  3. 3
    071949

    Mauritius.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume II. Gabon to Norway, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. 170-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.1; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.1)

    Mauritius' 1985 population of 1,050,000 is projected to grow to 1,606,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 31.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.7% were over the age of 60. 21.2% and 17.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.5 to 5.9 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 66.7 to 74/2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 6.0 to 8.6, while infant mortality will decline from 28.4 to 8.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.8 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 25.5 to 14.5. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 75.0, while the 1983 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.7 years. Urban population will increase from 42.2% in 1985 to 62.7% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Mauritius has an explicit population policy. It aims to decrease population growth by reducing fertility. Specific efforts include providing family planning services, improving women's status, and increasing females' minimum marriage age from 15 to 18 years. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  4. 4
    070219

    Venezuela.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Venezuela's 1985 population of 17,317,000 is projected to grow to 38,000,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 39.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.3% were over the age of 60. 27.8% and 11.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 27.4 to 13.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.0 to 73.7 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.5 to 6.3, while infant mortality will decline from 29.0 to 20.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.1 to 2.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.0 to 20.1. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 49.3, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.2 years. Urban population will increase from 87.6% in 1985 to 96.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, high immigration, and spatial distribution are not. Venezuela does not have an explicit population policy. Fertility and health are addressed under more broad social sector policy and in the general context of family welfare. While the government does not directly intervene to affect population growth or fertility, sectoral programs and national development plans have had an impact on population dynamics. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  5. 5
    070213

    United Arab Emirates.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 182-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The United Arab Emirates' 1985 population of 1,350,000 is projected to grow to 2,692,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 31.0% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 2.4% were over the age of 60. 24.8% and 18.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.0 to 8.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.2 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 3.6 to 8.1, while infant mortality will decline from 32.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.2 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 26.6 to 16.8. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate, while the 1975 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.0 years. Urban population will increase from 77.8% in 1985 to 84.9% overall by the year 2025. Mortality, morbidity, fertility, spatial distribution, and insignificant emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth and immigration are not. The United Arab Emirates does not have an explicit population policy. The government is, however, intent upon reducing its heavy dependency upon immigrant workers, and will increasingly restrict immigration and migration to urban areas while encouraging continued high fertility among the native-born population. Economic development and social change are also fostered to raise the standard of living. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  6. 6
    070208

    Turkey.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Turkey's 1985 population of 50,345,000 is projected to grow to 89,646,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.4% were over the age of 60. 22.9% and 13.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.8 to 9.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 61.6 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.4 to 6.7, while infant mortality will decline from 92.0 to 19.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 30.2 to 16.3. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 51.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.7 years. Urban population will increase from 45.9% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Significant immigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, fertility, mortality, and low emigration are not. Turkey has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and fertility through family planning programs and family welfare provisions, reduce mortality through expanded, local-level public health services, and reduce migration to urban areas. Policy supports increased emigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  7. 7
    070207

    Tunisia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 158-61. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Tunisia's 1985 population of 7,261,000 is projected to grow to 13,284,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 39.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.0% were over the age of 60. 22.5% and 13.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.3 to 10.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 63.1 to 75.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.4 to 5.9, while infant mortality will decline from 71.0 to 16.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.7 to 16.0. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.1, while the 1984 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 53.0% in 1985 to 72.6% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while the high population growth, mortality, fertility, low emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Tunisia has an explicit population policy. It aims to lower the birth rate and population growth, extend family health services in rural areas, improve living conditions and health care facilities for infants and small children, decrease migration to metropolitan areas, and adjust the spatial distribution pattern. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  8. 8
    070203

    Thailand.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 142-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Thailand;s 1985 population of 51,604,000 is projected to grow to 80,911,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.6% were over the age of 60. 21.0% and 15.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.9 to 7.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.7 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.0 to 7.4, while infant mortality will decline from 48.0 to 13.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 27.8 to 14.4. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 65.5, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 19.8% in 1985 to 49.2% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant international migration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Thailand has an explicit population policy. Encouraging the voluntary acceptance of family planning and the notion of a small family ideal, policy supports a reduction in the rate of population growth. Health and socioeconomic objectives as well as a balanced population distribution are also included as well as balanced population distribution are also included under the rubric of population policy. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  9. 9
    070202

    Syrian Arab Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 138-41. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The Syrian Arab Republic's 1985 population of 10,458,000 is projected to grow to 32,271,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.3% were over the age of 60. 30.8% and 6.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. THe rate of natural increase will have declined from 36.9 to 17.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.6 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.6 to 3.7, while infant mortality will decline from 59.0 to 15.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.2 to 2.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.5 to 21.5. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 19.8, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 49.5% in 1985 to 72.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, spatial distribution, and insignificant immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high emigration is not. The Syrian Arab Republic does not have an explicit population policy. Policies address the improvement of health, education, and cultural and housing conditions, especially in rural areas, with no governmental intervention in fertility. They aim to more effectively and efficiently channel resources to various sectors of the economy. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    070200

    Sweden.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 130-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sweden's 1985 population of 8,350,000 is projected to shrink to 8,136,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 17.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 23.6% were over the age of 60. 15.6% and 30.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to -2.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.3 to 80.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 12.7, while infant mortality will decline from 7.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 11.3 to 10.4. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 78.1, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 27.6 years. Urban population will increase from 83.4% in 1985 to 90.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government while only spatial distribution is marginally not. Sweden does not have an explicit population policy. Population policies are part and parcel of broader socioeconomic policy, with, nonetheless, an interest in limiting future levels of immigration and adjusting urban-rural spatial imbalance. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    070199

    Swaziland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 126-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Swaziland's 1985 population of 665,000 is projected to grow to 2,206,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.8% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.7% were over the age of 60. 35.3% and 5.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 32.9 to 20.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 53.0 to 70.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.1 to 4.9, while infant mortality will decline from 129.0 to 51.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.5 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 47.0 to 25.3. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 26.3% in 1985 to 62.6% overall by the year 2025. Immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and urban population growth are not. Swaziland does not have an explicit population policy. Programs aimed at reducing population growth and fertility through the provision of family planning services, maternal-child health services, and socioeconomic development are, however, being promoted. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    070185

    Sri Lanka.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 114-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sri Lanka's 1985 population of 16,108,000 is projected to grown to 24,449,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 34.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 71.1% were over the age of 60. 21.6% and 17.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.5 to 7.5 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.9 to 77.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 6.3 to 7.2, while infant mortality will decline from 39.0 to 13.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.3 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 26.9 to 14.7. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 62.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.4 years. Urban population will increase from 21.1% n 1985 to 42.6% overall by he year 2025. Insignificant levels of international migration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, and fertility are not. Sri Lanka has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and adjust the age structure by lowering fertility and infant and child mortality. Strengthened and expanded family planning services, financial incentives for women using IUDs, and population education are components of this approach. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    070184

    Spain.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 110-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Spain's 1985 population of 38,602,000 is projected to grown to 42,530,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.1% were over the age of 60. 16.6% and 26.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 75.8 to 80.3 years, the crude birth death rate will increase from 7.7 to 10.3, while infant mortality will decline from 11.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.8 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 11.0. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 59.4, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.1 years. Urban population will increase from 75.8% in 1985 to 88.8% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. Spain, therefore, does not have an explicit population policy. The government considers the country's demographic situation to be stable, and deems fertility to be an individual matter. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken regarding the above-mentioned demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    070176

    Saudi Arabia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 78-81. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Saudi Arabia's 1985 population of 11,595,000 is projected to grow to 44,780,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.2% were over the age of 60. 38.0% and 6.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 34.3 to 24.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 60.9 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.9 to 3.7, while infant mortality will decline from 85.0 to 21.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.3 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 43.2 to 27.9. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 73.0% in 1985 to 88.2% overall by the year 2025. Fertility, emigration, and spatial distribution levels are not. Saudi Arabia does not have an explicit population policy. In the interest of protecting national identity and meeting the economy's labor requirements, an increase in population size is desired. Steps have therefore been taken to reduce mortality and maintain high fertility with the ultimate goal of reducing dependency upon expatriate labor. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    070166

    Poland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 30-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Poland's 1985 population of 37,203,000 is projected to grow to 45,066,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 25.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 13,8% were over the age of 60. 19.6% and 22.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 9.6 to 3.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 70.9 to 77.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.6 to 9.8, while infant mortality will decline from 20.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.3 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 19.2 to 13.1. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 75.0, while the 1984 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.8 years. Urban population will increase from 61.0% in 1985 to 71.0% overall by the year 2025. Population size and growth, fertility, immigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population age structure, mortality, morbidity, and too high emigration are not. Poland has an explicit population policy. Aiming to establish a stable population, policies control internal migration while governing efforts to improve mortality and living conditions. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    070161

    Panama.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 10-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Panama's 1985 population of 2,180,000 is projected to grow to 3,862,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 37.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.6% were over the age of 60. 23.2% and 14.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 22.6 to 9.1 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.0 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.4 to 7.1, while infant mortality will decline from 26.0 to 17.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 28.0 to 16.1. The 1984 contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.2, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.3 years. Urban population will increase from 52.4% in 1985 to 74.3% overall by the year 2025. Growth, fertility, immigration, mortality, and morbidity are considered to be acceptable by the government, while spatial distribution is not. Panama does not have an explicit population policy. In general, it is more concerned with integrating marginal population subgroups, rectifying inadequate urban-rural spatial distribution, and reducing infant mortality. Socioeconomic policies related to demographic issues have been components of successive national development plans. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    070160

    Pakistan.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 6-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Pakistan's 1985 population of 103,241,000 is projected to grow to 267,089,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.4% were over the age of 60. 28.4% and 8.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 36.0 to 14.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 54.0 to 70.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 14.4 to 5.4, while infant mortality will decline from 120.0 to 43.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.0 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.3 to 20.1. The 1984/85 contraceptive prevalence rate was 7.6, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 19.8 years. Urban population will increase from 29.8% in 1985 to 56.7% overall by the year 2025. Emigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, fertility, and immigration are not. Pakistan has an explicit population policy. Efforts are under way to reduce illiteracy and unemployment, improve health conditions, and lower fertility through family planning programs. Such steps are fully integrated components of broader social and economic planning. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    070218

    Vanuatu.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 202-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Vanuatu's 1985 population of 142,000 is projected to grow to 360,000 by the year 2025. Urban population will increase from 25.4% in 1985 to 58.2% overall by the year 2025. No specific data are presented on population age structure and growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and international migration. Population growth, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution are nonetheless considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and morbidity are not. Vanuatu does not have an explicit population policy. While the government does not presently intervene to modify demographic variables, it recognizes a future need for attention to national population dynamics. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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