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Multistakeholder partnerships with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to improve childhood immunisation: a perspective from global health equity and political determinants of health equity.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2016 Aug; 21(8):965-972.Objective To examine the current partnerships to improve the childhood immunization programme in the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the context of the political determinants of health equity. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify public health collaborations with the DPRK government. Based on the amount of publicly accessible data and a shared approach in health system strengthening among the partners in immunization programmes, the search focused on these partnerships. results The efforts by WHO, UNICEF, GAVI and IVI with the DPRK government improved the delivery of childhood vaccines (e.g. pentavalent vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine, two-dose measles vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine) and strengthened the DPRK health system by equipping health centers, and training all levels of public health personnel for VPD surveillance and immunization service delivery. Conclusion The VPD-focused programmatic activities in the DPRK have improved the delivery of childhood immunization and have created dialogue and contact with the people of the DPRK. These efforts are likely to ameliorate the political isolation of the people of the DPRK and potentially improve global health equity.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2006 Jul-Dec; 31(2): p..Pakistan population was 153 million in 2003. Annual number of births in the same year was 55 million and annual under age five deaths were 567,000. The life expectancy at birth was 61 years. By the beginning of 1980, although infant mortality and child deaths had declined globally, an estimated 280,000 children died every week in south Asian region from a cycle of malnutrition disease and poor sanitation. UNICEF launched a campaign to put children on the political agenda and, with government of Pakistan, drew a five-point plan covering health, safe drinking water and literacy for children and adults. These interventions covered the growth monitoring, oral re-hydration, breast-feeding, immunization, food security, family planning and female education, the plan referred as GOBI-FFF. In 1990, Pakistan participated world summit for children and signed world declaration on the survival, protection and development of children and launched national plan for action for children (NPAC) and the social action program (SAP-I) in 1992.2 (excerpt)
Sport for development and peace: towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Report from the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. vi, 36 p.This report analyses in detail the potential contribution that sport can make towards achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It provides an overview of the growing role that sports activities are playing in many United Nations programmes and crystallizes the lessons learned. It also includes recommendations aimed at maximizing and mainstreaming the use of sport. (excerpt)
Belize City, Belize, Ministry of Health, 1984. , 54 p. (EPI/84/003)An evaluation of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Belize was conducted by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization at the request of the country's Ministry of Health. The evaluation was undertaken to identify obstacles to program implementation, and subsequently provide national managers and decision makers with viable potential solutions. General background information is provided on Belize, with specific mention made of demographic, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics, the health system, and the EPI program in the country. EPI evaluation methodology and vaccination coverage are presented, followed by detailed examination of study findings and recommendations. Achievements, problems, and recommendations are listed for the areas of planning and organizations, management and administration, training, supervision, resources, logistics and the cold chain, delivery strategies, the information and surveillance system, and promotion and community participation. A 23-page chronogram of recommended activities follows, with the report concluding in acknowledgements and annexes.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc., Resources for Child Health Project, 1988.  p.The Resources for Child Health (REACH) has produced an IMMUNIZATION DIRECTORY which describes the immunization-related roles played by the host country governments, the major donors, and the (primarily US-based) private voluntary organizations on a country-by-country basis. The primary countries highlighted in this directory are those designated by the Agency for International Development as the 22 "Child Survival Emphasis" countries. The basic data for each country includes 1) basic demographic data, 2) national policies, 3) delivery strategies, 4) technical aspects, 5) the official immunization schedule, and 5) the activities of various international agencies. Data is included for Cameroon, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Uganda, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Yemen, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and Peru.
IN TOUCH 1991 Jun; 10(99):21-2.Despite obstacles to expanding immunization coverage (EPI) in developing countries, progress has been made in Bangladesh and is described. A February, 1991, World Health Organization cluster evaluation survey indicates that government efforts during the 1980s, with the cooperation and assistance of non-governmental organizations (NGO), have increased the degree of immunization coverage in Bangladesh. 80% coverage for BCG, measles, and DPT-3 antigens is realized in the Rajshahi division, 1 of 4 divisions sampled in the survey. Use of existing FWAs and HA as vaccinators; DC, UNO, and upazila chairmen involvement; partner recruitment for mobilization efforts; steam sterilization of needles; maintenance of an effective cold chain; and monthly vaccination sessions at more than 108,000 sites throughout the country worked together to successfully yield greater immunization coverage. Sustained efforts are, however, required to ensure vaccine protection of the 4 million children born into the population each year. 80% or greater universal coverage in Bangladesh is the focus of continued efforts. Eradication of polio, measles, and neonatal tetanus is possible in the 1990s, while Vitamin A distribution and more effective promotion of family planning services are also objectives. Government and NGO workers must promote awareness of EPI, monitor EPI service delivery, and encourage HAs, FWAs, UHFO Civil Surgeons, UNOs, DCs, and upazila chairmen to provide regular EPI services.