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[Unpublished] 2012 Sep 11.  p. (A/RES/66/288)Recalling its resolution 64/236 of 24 December 2009, in which it decided to organize, in 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at the highest possible level, as well as its resolution 66/197 of 22 December 2011, 1. Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government and the people of Brazil for hosting the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro from 20 to 22 June 2012, and for providing all the necessary support; 2. Endorses the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled “The future we want”, annexed to the present resolution. (Excerpt)
Rio+20. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012. Agenda item 10. Outcome of the conference. The future we want.
[Unpublished] 2012 Jun 19.  p. (A/CONF.216/L.1)We, the Heads of State and Government and high-level representatives, having met at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 22 June 2012, with the full participation of civil society, renew our commitment to sustainable development and to ensuring the promotion of an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable future for our planet and for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 21 October 2011.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, 2011.  p.The Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health expresses global political commitment for the implementation of a social determinants of health approach to reduce health inequities and to achieve other global priorities. It will help to build momentum within WHO Member States for the development of dedicated national action plans and strategies. On 15 August 2011, the text was circulated to Geneva-based Permanent Missions of Member States. The first meeting of Member States, convened by the Government of Brazil, was held at WHO headquarters on 7 September, 2011. This was followed by a series of informal consultations attended by representatives of Permanent Missions. The text of the declaration was finalized during the conference in Rio de Janeiro on 19-21 October, 2011.
Regional report on the implementation of the UNICEF guidelines for the protection of the rights of child victims of trafficking in South Eastern Europe: Assessment of the situation in Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Terre des Hommes, . 115 p.Trafficking in human beings still remains a major human rights violation affecting South Eastern Europe. Although many efforts have been made and progress achieved in combating trafficking throughout Europe in general, and South Eastern Europe in particular, human beings are still victims of trafficking and children, as a particularly vulnerable group, represent an important proportion of the persons being trafficked.
[Unpublished] 1999.  p.This statement regards the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Poland and other Eastern and Central European countries. It discusses initiatives that the participants urge all governments to implement for children's rights and to eliminate child poverty, discrimination, and dangerous work situations.
Integration of human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Letter dated 16 May 2003 from the Permanent Representative of Bhutan to the United Nations Office at Geneva addressed to the Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Jun 12. 3 p. (E/CN.4/2004/G/3)I wish to refer to Addendum 1 to your report to the 59th session of the Commission on Human Rights containing an analysis of developments in the area of violence against women at the international, regional and national level, and to provide the following additional information regarding the entry on Bhutan, with a request that these be reflected in the final report. Most national studies on gender show that Bhutan is relatively "gender-balanced" and that there is no overt gender discrimination. Bhutanese women enjoy freedom and equality in most spheres of life. In view of the general overall equality of women and men, no legislation explicitly prohibits discrimination against women. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2003. 4 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2003/77)Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and accepted humanitarian rules, as set forth in the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto. Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and to fulfil the obligations they have freely undertaken under the various international instruments. Recalling that Afghanistan is a party to several international human rights instruments and has obligations to report on their implementation. Recalling also the relevant resolutions and decisions of the Commission on Human Rights, the relevant resolutions and presidential statements of the Security Council, the reports of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict (S/2002/1299) and on women, peace and security (S/2002/1154) and the most recent resolution adopted by the Commission on the Status of Women. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/52. Addendum 1: International, regional and national developments in the area of violence against women 1994-2003.
[New York, New York], United Nations, Economic and Social Council, 2003 Feb 27. 435 p. (E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1)The present report contains a detailed review of international, regional and national developments and best practices for ways and means of combating violence against women over the period 1994-2003. The report is not fully comprehensive, some regions or countries may have been reported on in greater detail than others, reflecting the information that was available to the Special Rapporteur. In order to provide a systematic analysis of global developments, the Special Rapporteur requested information on efforts to eliminate violence against women, its causes and consequences, from Governments, specialized agencies, United Nations organs and bodies, and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, including women's organizations, and academics. The Special Rapporteur expresses her gratitude to all who kindly provided information, which contributed significantly in the preparation of her report. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Nov 24; 370(9601):1744-1746.The four papers in this Series called Who Counts? describe the state of the world's vital statistics, and the fact that few countries derive these from routine compulsory measures through civil registration. However, every country in the world has the capacity to produce useful economic data. Because of its particular interest in, and requirements for, demographic and epidemiological data, the health sector should raise similar expectations of national capacity to produce vital statistics. Unrepresentative, biased, incomplete, and often out-of-date, the world's vital statistics compare poorly with the detailed information available on every country's economy. The effort and expense of gathering and interpreting data on national income and trade balances are accepted costs of monitoring economic prospects in an international market. Health is arguably as important as economics, and establishing their mutual interdependence has made a big difference to the funding and attention that health attracts.Sen proposes mortality as an indicator of economic success or failure, but many countries are still making patchy and incomplete efforts to count lives and deaths, and to document how their people die. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2007 Sep. 108 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 19, No. 14(A))Since mid-2005, hundreds of civilians have been killed, more than 10 thousand houses burned, and approximately 212,000 persons have fled their homes in terror to live in desperate conditions deep in the bush in northern Central African Republic (CAR). Bordering eastern Chad and war-ravaged Darfur in Sudan, this area has been destabilized by at least two major rebellions against the government of President Francois Bozize. The vast majority of summary executions and unlawful killings, and almost all village burnings, have been carried out by government forces, often in reprisal for rebel attacks. While both main rebel groups have been responsible for widespread looting and the forced taxation of the civilian population in areas they control - and rebels in the northeast have committed killings, beatings, and rape - their abuses pale in comparison to those of the Central African Armed Forces (Forces armees Centrafricaines, FACA) and the elite Presidential Guard (Garde presidentielle, GP). As the International Criminal Court (ICC) begins investigations into atrocities committed during the 2002-2003 rebellion against former President Patasse, it should also investigate possible war crimes under its jurisdiction committed in the current round of fighting. (excerpt)
Ottawa, Canada, Youth Coalition, 2006. 30 p.The current global generation of young people is the first in history to have lived their entire lives in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and are disproportionately affected. Millions of children and youth have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS; thousands of others are HIV positive themselves; and many others are affected by it in a variety of ways. None of us are immune to it. In response to the pandemic, governments and international organizations have adopted a variety of responses, but the numbers show that what has been done thus far clearly is not adequate. The reality is that none of these responses, initiatives or programs will be truly successful and effective until they integrate a sexual and reproductive rights and a gender perspective. Furthermore, every initiative must include youth from the beginning to ensure that we young people, have the youth-friendly information, education, services and products that we are entitled to as our human right, in order to make informed and healthy decisions about our sexual and reproductive lives. This guide is intended to: Provide an overview of the linkages between sexual and reproductive rights and HIV/AIDS; Explain the importance of HIV/AIDS initiatives having a sexual and reproductive rights perspective, as well as a youth perspective; and Discuss ways that young people can advocate for their sexual and reproductive rights within HIV/AIDS frameworks, in their countries, regions, and globally. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2006 Jun.  p.This study reviewed the gender-related aspects of the work of TCs in Peru, Sierra Leone, and South Africa, as expressed in their daily work, in the drafting of the commission's mandate, in the participation of civil society institutions, and in the preparation of the final report. The three country experiences were selected as informative examples. Following a description of the experiences in the three countries, this study focuses on the Peruvian case to illustrate how the formal and informal justice systems have responded to the gender-relevant findings of the TC. The study also provides general suggestions for the consideration of World Bank staff, particularly in the incorporation of gender issues into the Bank's postconflict interventions in relevant sectors. Finally, the study reviews some basic indicators of progress and impact in Bank-financed interventions in postconflict and transitional settings. (excerpt)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
Unkept promises: what the numbers say about poverty and gender. An international citizen's progress report on poverty eradication and gender equity. Advance Social Watch report 2005.
Montevideo, Uruguay, Social Watch, 2005. 114 p. (Social Watch Report)Almost five years have passed since the largest gathering ever of heads of State and government made this solemn promise to the peoples of the world: "we will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty."1 Almost ten years have passed since the leaders of the world solemnly committed themselves in Copenhagen "to the goal of eradicating poverty in the world, through decisive national actions and international cooperation, as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of humankind."2 This is an ambitious agenda. So much so that it was compared by many leaders to the historic task of slavery abolition in the 19th century. Inspired by the Copenhagen Declaration and the complementary Beijing Platform for Action towards gender equity, 3 citizen groups from all over the world came together to form the Social Watch network. Every year since then, Social Watch has published a comprehensive report monitoring the governments' compliance with their international commitments. The findings of the national Social Watch coalitions in over 60 countries and the analysis of the available indicators coincide: the promises have remained largely unmet. Unless substantial changes are put in place soon, the targets set for the year 2015 will not be achieved. (excerpt)
Evolution of national population policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):297-328.Population policy did not figure prominently at the 1954 United Nations World Population Conference in Rome. It was a commonly held view at the time that "population matters" were in the personal and family sphere and thus, not an appropriate area of involvement for Governments. Nevertheless, some discussion took place on policies to reduce population growth in less developed regions, on policies to raise fertility in more developed regions, on the impact of population ageing and on the consequences of international migration for sending and receiving countries. This paper tracks Government's views and policies on population and development since the 1954 Rome Conference. Among other things, it considers the central role played by United Nations global population conferences in facilitating international cooperation and national government entrance into embracing population policies. (excerpt)
Choices. 2001 Dec; 5.The HIV/AIDS epidemic is the world's most serious development crisis. Nearly 58 million people have been infected, and 22 million are already dead. The epidemic continues to spread, with over 15,000 new infections every day. The devastating scale and impact of this catastrophe is a call of the utmost urgency for each of us to act. On 27 June 2001, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), adopted the "Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS." The Declaration recognized in clear and forthright terms the driving forces of the epidemic, including social, economic, and cultural aspects; and set specific measurable goals in four key areas: prevention of new infections; provision of improved care, support and treatment; reduction of vulnerability; and mitigation of the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS. The global community is challenged to respond to the epidemic in a new way, with strategic attention to its human rights and gender dimensions, greater accountability for results, and courageous and visionary leadership. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2005 Jan 21. 22 p.Since February 2003, Darfur has been the scene of massive crimes against civilians of particular ethnicities in the context of an internal conflict between the Sudanese government and a rebel insurgency. Almost two million people have been forcibly displaced and stripped of all their property and tens of thousands of people have been killed, raped or assaulted. Even against this backdrop of extreme violence against civilians, several incidents in March 2004 stand out for the extraordinary level of brutality demonstrated by the perpetrators. In one incident, Sudanese government and “Janjaweed” militia forces detained and then conducted mass executions of more than 200 farmers and community leaders of Fur ethnicity in the Wadi Saleh area of West Darfur. In a second incident in neighboring Shattaya locality, government and militia forces attacked Fur civilians, detained them in appalling conditions for weeks, and subjected many to torture. To date, the Sudanese government has neither improved security for civilians nor ended the impunity enjoyed by its own officials and allied militia leaders. Immediate action including an increased international presence in rural areas of Darfur is needed to improve protection of civilians and reverse ethnic cleansing. International prosecutions are also essential to provide accountability for crimes against humanity and ensure justice for the victims in Darfur. The Sudanese government is clearly unwilling and unable to hold perpetrators of atrocities to account: a presidential inquiry into abuses recently disputed evidence of widespread and systematic abuses and instead of prosecutions, recommended the formation of a committee. The United Nations Security Council, following receipt of the January 25th report of the international commission of inquiry’s investigation into violations of international humanitarian law and human rights law and allegations of genocide in Darfur, should promptly refer the situation of Darfur to the International Criminal Court for prosecution. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 1998. 16 p. (ICRW Working Paper No. 6)How is it that 556 million women and girls throughout the world are illiterate, and this is not viewed as a violation of their right to education? When 600,000 women die annually as a result of complications of pregnancy, and an additional 18 million women suffer from pregnancy-related morbidities that go untreated, how is this not seen as a failure of governments to meet their obligations to promote, protect, and fulfill women's rights to the most basic attainable standard of health? How can the feminization of poverty be viewed as anything less than a violation of women's rights to an adequate standard of living, equal access to employment, credit, property, and training? These alarming statistics constitute the foundation of the literature on women in development (WID), and are generally referred to as "the state of the world's women." The time has come to call these realities what they truly are: human rights violations. It is fitting that the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights--adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly in 1948--comes at a time when a new discourse on human rights and development is emerging. This new thinking is especially important to the field of women in development, as it holds the potential of launching a revitalized effort toward ensuring gender equity and equality for the next century. This trend, however, has only recently begun to gain a sense of currency among WID researchers and practitioners. Until recently, the promotion and protection of human rights and the realization of sustainable development have been viewed as separate domains. Notably, development measures are rarely viewed as contributing to the realization of specific human rights--for example, the right to food--when that is precisely what such measures have done. (excerpt)
Boston, Massachusetts, Harvard School of Public Health, François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, 2000. 10 p.Before human rights, there was altruism and after human rights there is altruism—the unselfish concern for the welfare of others. Altruism has been and remains an integral part of the beliefs, behaviors and practices of public health practitioners. But altruism means different things to different people. What human rights does for public health is to provide an internationally agreed upon framework for setting out the responsibilities of governments under human rights law as these relate to people’s health and welfare. Human rights as they connect to health should be understood, in the first instance, with reference to the description of health set forth in the preamble of the WHO Constitution, and repeated in many subsequent documents and currently adopted by the 191 WHO Member States: Health is a “state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” This definition has important conceptual and practical implications, as it illustrates the indivisibility and interdependence of rights as they relate to health. Rights relating to autonomy, information, education, food and nutrition, association, equality, participation and non-discrimination are integral and indivisible parts of the achievement of the highest attainable standard of health, just as the enjoyment of the right to health is inseparable from other rights, whether categorized as civil and political, economic, social or cultural. Thus, the right to the highest attainable standard of health builds on, but is by no means limited to, Article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It transcends virtually every single other right. This paper highlights the long evolution that has brought health and human rights together in mutually reinforcing ways. It will summarize key dimensions of public health and of human rights and will suggest a manner in which these dimensions intersect in a framework of analysis and action. It will address these issues against the background of the progress being made by the World Health Organization towards defining its roles and functions from a health and human rights perspective. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003. 43 p.The right to the highest attainable standard of health was enshrined in WHO’s constitution over 50 years ago, and recognized as a human right in article 12.1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This right extends to the underlying determinants of health; central among these are safe water and adequate sanitation. Yet we have entered the new millennium with one of the most fundamental conditions of human development unmet: universal access to water. Of the world’s 6 billion people, at least 1.1 billion lack access to safe drinking-water. The lives of these people who are among the poorest on our planet are often devastated by this deprivation, which impedes the enjoyment of health and other human rights such as the right to food and to adequate housing. Water is the essence of life and human dignity. Water is fundamental to poverty reduction, providing people with elements essential to their growth and development. Recently, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which monitors the implementation of the Covenant, adopted General Comment No. 15 in which water is recognized, not only as a limited natural resource and a public good but also as a human right. The right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water, and it must be enjoyed without discrimination and equally by women and men. At the Millennium Summit, States agreed to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking-water. We are pleased to issue this publication as a contribution to the International Year of Freshwater, celebrated worldwide throughout 2003 as an immense opportunity to highlight and promote the right to water as a fundamental human right. (excerpt)
[Sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights. A question of human rights] Saúde sexual e reprodutiva e direitos reprodutivos. Uma questão de direitos humanos.
Sexualidade & Planeamento Familiar. 2001 Nov-Dec; (32):45-52.There is currently an international consensus that reproductive rights are human rights. In the work, it is defended that, although the governments have taken some steps to guide and broaden the services in order to better satisfy the sexual and reproductive health needs of the populations, to advance equality and parity between the sexes and to promote reproductive rights, it is necessary to do much more to make health and reproductive rights a reality for women and men in the entire world. The UN Conference and the agreement about reproductive health (RH) and reproductive rights (RR). Any of the global Conferences that the UN holds in this decade - each one focusing on an important, different and particular question - amplifies the same common message: that to have success, the development efforts should be centered on the people. Ensuring human rights and satisfying the basic necessities of the people are the first critical steps in the resolution of global problems. The right to development itself included key elements such as broadening the access of the population to basic social services and sustaining means of life, balancing the interaction between people, resources and the environment and equitably reconciling the needs of the present with those of future generations. (excerpt)
RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):20.All human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated. So says the Platform for Action approved by the UN Fourth World Conference on Women. Their full enjoyment, on an equal footing, by women and girls should be a priority for the governments and the United Nations, and is necessary for women's progress. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:879-881.This exchange has helped identify common ground and focus questions before us. Kenneth Roth and I agree that strategies for realizing economic, social, and cultural rights must not only include but also go beyond “naming and shaming.” I read his initial article as contending that naming and shaming is “the most productive way” for international human rights organizations to address these rights and criticizing other strategies as ineffective or even counterproductive. He now agrees to the existence of “other important methodologies”;1 I believe discussion of these other methods to achieve economic, social, and cultural rights remains one of the key tasks of the international human rights movement. On the question of allocating resources to realize economic, social, and cultural rights, I agree with Ken Roth that international human rights organizations, using naming and shaming strategies, can and should challenge allocation decisions when they are arbitrary or discriminatory and, as I point out below, when they fail to fulfill obligations for particular rights. Another question, though, also demands our attention: What should these organizations do in the face of the failure, or even resistance, of both national governments and international donors to provide the resources desperately needed to realize economic, social, and cultural rights that are within their capacity to provide. I believe that international human rights organizations should step up their efforts, often in conjunction with partners in effected countries, to increase overall spending on the realization of economic, social, and cultural rights, always seeking to enlarge the pot of resources; doing so, however, will require strategies in addition to naming and shaming. (excerpt)
Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:873-878.Leonard S. Rubenstein offers a thoughtful response to my article on how international monitoring and advocacy organizations that use a methodology of public shaming can best advance economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights. His article makes three basic points. First, he notes that such organizations can make useful contributions beyond exposing government misconduct and subjecting it to public opprobrium. Namely, he suggests that they can provide technical assistance to governments on implementing ESC rights and help with capacity building for national or local NGOs that seek such rights. Second, he contends that such international organizations need not be as concerned with advocating tradeoffs among competing ESC rights because fears of limited resources— a “zero-sum game”—are overblown. Third, he disagrees with my perceived preference for condemning “arbitrary” government conduct to the exclusion of violations of particular ESC rights. On the first point, I largely agree with him. On the second, I regretfully suspect he has an overly sanguine view of the problem. And on the third, I fear he has misunderstood me. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2004.  p.The overarching message of this Report is to highlight the vast potential of building a more peaceful, prosperous world by bringing issues of culture to the mainstream of development thinking and practice. Not to substitute for more traditional priorities that will remain our bread and butter—but to complement and strengthen them. The flip side of the development divide is that developing countries are often able to draw on richer, more diverse cultural traditions—whether captured in language, art, music or other forms— than their wealthier counterparts in the North. The globalization of mass culture—from books to films to television—clearly poses some significant threats to these traditional cultures. But it also opens up opportunities, from the narrow sense of disadvantaged groups like Australian Aborigines or Arctic Inuit tapping global art markets, to the broader one of creating more vibrant, creative, exciting societies. Like all Human Development Reports, this is an independent study intended to stimulate debate and discussion around an important issue, not a statement of United Nations or UNDP policy. However, by taking up an issue often neglected by development economists and putting it firmly within the spectrum of priorities in building better, more fulfilled lives, it presents important arguments for UNDP and its partners to consider and act on in their broader work. This year, I would also like to pay particular tribute to Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, who is stepping down after 10 successful years leading our Human Development Report Office. I would also like to extend special thanks to Amartya Sen, one of the godfathers of human development, who has not only contributed the first chapter but been an enormous influence in shaping our thinking on this important issue. (excerpt)