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[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.Family Health Options Kenya (FHOK, the IPPF Member Association in Kenya), the Centre for the Study of Adolescence (CSA) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Respond to severe shortages of health workers and poor working conditions in the health sector; Recruit 17,000 health workers by 2017 and an additional 40,000 community health extension workers by 2017 (in accordance with promises made at the Human Resources for Health Conference in Brazil, 2013); Improve the procurement and supply of FP commodities. Currently, Kenya can access FP commodities for free, but only when they are ordered alone. The Kenya Medical Supplies Authority (KEMSA) often orders FP supplies with other essential supplies, and as a result the government has to pay for them, wasting valuable resources; Accelerate the training of trainers on new FP technologies to increase access to developments in family planning. New family planning technologies offer different benefits compared to modern family planning methods currently available. However, health workers must be trained to deliver them.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (PKBI/IPPA, the IPPF Member Association in Indonesia) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. The government has made some progress towards its pledges, but existing efforts are not enough to deliver on its promises by 2020. In addition, other problems and gaps have emerged. The government must address these problems urgently. Civil society calls on the government to: Create a dedicated budget line for family planning and increase budget allocations for family planning. Currently, only 2.2% of the health budget is allocated for nutrition and maternal health and family planning, which falls short of the US $263.7 million target pledged at the 2012 Family Planning Summit. Although the government increased the health budget by 1.5% from 2014-2015, it is not clear how much of the increase was allocated to family planning; Amend Population Law 52/2009 to state that family planning services must not discriminate on the basis of marital status. To implement this amendment, the government must issue new health service delivery guidelines and raise awareness of the policy change; Establish mechanisms to involve young people in government decision-making processes. Youth programmes, in particular, must take into account young people’s needs and demands in order to be effective.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP, the IPPF Member Association in the Philippines) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Improve implementation of the Reproductive Health Law by issuing clear guidance to government agencies and local government units with regards to what their duties and responsibilities are in relation to the RH Law; Implement behaviour change programmes for bureaucrats, health workers and civil servants so they clearly understand their responsibilities with regards to the RH Law, and to eliminate any possibility that they will misinterpret the Law.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Sep. 2 p.To hold the government to account for its FP2020 commitments, the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) developed a monitoring and accountability tool, called the FP annual score card, in collaboration with local partners. The score card measures the government’s annual performance against their commitments, using indicators such as ‘demand generated for FP’, ‘financing’ and ‘access to services’. The score card helps advocates to identify what the government has delivered to date and what it should be delivering, based on a trajectory towards 2020. Family planning organizations and champions, national and international, use the results in their advocacy messaging and monitoring.
London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2016 Jun. 12 p.Governments have agreed a range of commitments to advance sustainable development, including promoting women’s and girls’ health and protecting human rights for all. Global commitments are important as they set a framework for funding to flow towards a particular issue and influence national development strategies and programming. As advocates, we can use global commitments to encourage coordination across national development plans, to push for funding and to increase political buy-in. This factsheet will focus on the linkages between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) commitments.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2010. 2 p.This brief argues that despite increases in contraceptive use since 1994, high unmet need for family planning persists. Among the most significant underserved group is a new generation of adolescents. They enter adulthood with inadequate information on sexuality and reproductive health and few skills to protect their health and rights.
In: The global family planning revolution: three decades of population policies and programs, edited by Warren C. Robinson and John A. Ross. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 155-174.In Jamaica, as in many countries, the pioneers of family planning were men and women who sought to improve the well-being of their impoverished women compatriots, and who perhaps were also conscious of the social threats of rapid population growth. When, eventually, population control became national policy, the relationship between the initial private programs and the national effort did not always evolve smoothly, as the Jamaican experience shows (see box 10.1 for a timeline of the main events in relation to family planning in Jamaica). A related question was whether the family planning program should be a vertical one, that is, with a staff directed toward a sole objective, or whether it should be integrated within the public health service. These issues were not unique to Jamaica, but in one respect Jamaica was distinctive: it was the setting for the World Bank's first loan for family planning activities. Family planning programs entailed public expenditures that were quite different from the infrastructure investments for which almost all Bank loans had been made, and the design and appraisal of a loan for family planning that did not violate the principles that governed Bank lending at the time required a series of decisions at the highest levels of the Bank. These decisions shaped World Bank population lending for several years and subjected the Bank to a good deal of external criticism. For that reason, this chapter focuses on the process of making this loan. (excerpt)
JOICFP NEWS. 1998 May; (287):5.The Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council of Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare recommended that the licensing of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill be postponed until further studies are conducted into the relationship between the pill and cervical cancer, the release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals into the environment from the urine and feces of women using the pill, and possible health problems in children of mothers who have taken the pill before pregnancy. The government of Japan decided in March to indefinitely postpone licensing of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill. Women, the Family Planning Federation of Japan, and other supporters in Japan are now working to educate the public on the issue and pressure the government to speed authorization. Japan is the only industrialized country in the world which does not provide access to the pill. Without the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, women in Japan practically have no effective female method of contraception since neither implants, injectables, nor copper IUDs are authorized. Not only does the government's position compromise the reproductive rights and health of women in Japan, it also runs counter to Japan's status as one of the largest donors to international population and reproductive health programs.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):32-4.The IPPF President asks his fellow Africans to look inward to find sources and solutions to the continent's problems. They can no longer blame colonialism and the international community for its problems, but should realize the governments of African countries which had little regard for their own people have misused government resources and not invested in people. Further the 1 party state is no longer effective at solving Africa's problems and people in many countries are beginning to prefer a multiparty democracy. In addition, 11% of the world's population inhabit Africa but Africa takes part in only 2% of the international trade. Africa's population growth rate is >3%/year and in 1992 it had almost 500 million people, yet the gross national product of the continent equals that of Belgium, a country of 10 million people. Development will need to come from Africans so governments must 1st develop its human resources base such as implementing policies that releases the entrepreneurial spirit, providing universal education, and training high levels professionals including planners, engineers, and entrepreneurs. In fact, military expenditures should be curtailed to make room for the much need development efforts. Further African governments must give priority to developing effective population and family planning programs. African population and family planning experts should convince government officials of the need to appropriate funds to these programs. Governments must also confront the problem of AIDS, but not at the expense of investment and general health programs. The 1990s are the last opportunity for Africa to mobilize its people, especially women and children, to pull itself out of poverty and despair.
POPULATION MANAGER: ICOMP REVIEW. 1987 Dec; 1(2):49-52.The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in national family planning programs have been extensive and effective. In terms of meeting the needs of the local level poor by encouraging self-help and participation, understanding social and cultural subtleties, and circumventing red tape. NGOs have a remarkable record. There is still a need for NGOs and there will be until the needs of the people are adequately met by the abilities of their governments. This is a rare occurrence, especially in developing countries. International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is an outstanding example of a successful NGO. A properly run, well staffed NGO can uphold national characteristics even when a program is threatened by political forces. They can help form government policy and aid in program development, complement and supplement government programs, carry out programs that the government can not or will not undertake, conduct experimental programs that governments will not risk resources for, yet are often time greatly needed, offer more personalized, flexible service and safeguard human rights. Without some form of support or endorsement, NGOs could not function. Governments should be encouraged to make contacts with as many agencies as possible about the promotion of family planning, formulate prototype programs for NGOs, help NGOs raise funds and resources, obtain technical aid including medical supplies and contraceptives, arrange counseling and exchange of information, make suitable arrangements for training of personnel.
In: World population crisis: the United States response, by Phyllis T. Piotrow. New York, New York, Praeger, 1973. vii-ix. (Law and Population Book Series No. 4)In this article, George H. Bush, Jr., the US Representative to the UN, expresses his support for family planning and fertility control at both the national and international level. Long aware of birth control as a public policy issue, Bush recalls how in 1950 his father lost a US Senate race when his opponent disclosed that the elder Bush supported Planned Parenthood, a family planning organization. But the previously taboo subject of birth control now demands public discussion, says Bush. With a 2% annual increase, the world's population of 4 billion is increasing by 80 million every year. Higher birth rates in poor countries have widened the income gap between developed and developing countries. While a member of the US House of Representative during the 1960s, Bush faced such disturbing issues as famine, unwanted pregnancies, and poverty. Finding it ridiculous that clinics and hospitals were prohibited from discussing birth control, Bush and other members of the House Ways and Means Committee took the lead in Congress to make family planning available to all women. Bush also helped repeal a law barring the mailing of birth control information and birth control devices. And when he moved to the UN, Bush saw that though the population issue was high on the agenda, it lacked some of the urgency it deserved. But having planned the 1974 World Population Conference, the UN is ready to tackle the population problem. Individual choice and responsible government represent the framework within which individuals and organizations must work. This work will be difficult, considering the large number of countries, races, and religions around the world. But addressing the population problem may help resolve such issues as peace, prosperity, and individual rights.
[Population policy and family planning in the third world] Bevolkerungspolitik und Familienplanung in der Dritten Welt.
In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 274-95.Beginning with the observation that the idea of the 3rd World is an artificial creation of western development economists, the author analyses the effects of family policy goals and processes toward the improvement of welfare and opportunities for children and mothers in African, Asian and South American countries and particularly the effects of programs aimed at decreasing fertility. He points out that two opposing points of view have dominated the development of family planning policies: "Development is the best pill" implies that when a country has become economically developed to European standards that fertility will decrease of its own accord; the opposing view: "No development without a pill" holds that economic development and modernization cannot take place without prior control of the rate of population growth. The author reviews UN General Assembly resolutions concerning the fundamental human right to development and sketches the background of UN actions based on that assertion. The author then traces the historical roots of community-based family planning from early times to more recent times, marked by national drives to limit the number of conceptions. He presents statistics on government policies regarding family planning, the populations affected by those policies and the demographic situations under which these policies operate. He itemizes the ethical issues involved in government and organizational activities in family planning and includes many examples of government activities in developing countries in which these principles have been involved.
In: Population and human rights, proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Population and Human Rights, Geneva, 3-6 April 1989 edited by the United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1990. 29-53. (ST/ESA/SER.R/107)This paper provides background information in population variables (mortality and fertility) and their relationship to human rights and introduces new issues that were not covered by the World Population Plan of Action in 1974 nor in Mexico City in 1984. These are: 1) the ethical implications of molecular biology for fertility and mortality; 2) rights of women as applied to the labor force; and 3) government respect for the rights of couples and individuals to decide on the number and spacing of children and to avoid coercion in the design of explicit fertility policies. The major issues in mortality are: 1) quality of health services; 2) the status of women; 3) ethnicity; 4) preference for sons; and the 5) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The major issues raised for fertility are: 1) trends; 2) views and policies between developed and developing countries; 3) 9 major issues and policies (improvement in the status of women; family planning programs; promoting public awareness; day care/nursery centers; maternity or paternity benefits; comprehensive pension schemes; care and protection of the aged; family allowances and tax exemptions to parents). The last section discusses the trend towards demographic aging; views on population age structure and the major issues in the area of population age structure. The 1982 Vienna International Plan of Action on Aging is the international document dealing with the rights of older persons.