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  1. 1

    Aid in community based poverty-environment projects.

    Sullivan M

    Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.

    It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Sustainable cities and local governance: lessons from a global United Nations programme. Habitat II, Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Committee II Hearings from United Nations Agencies / Organizations, Istanbul 7 June 1996.

    United Nations. Centre for Human Settlements [HABITAT]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]. Sustainable Cities Programme

    [Unpublished] 1996. [6] p.

    This paper summarizes some lessons learned about the Sustainable Cities (SCs) Program that were presented at the Second UN Conference on Human Settlements and Committee Hearings in 1996. An SC is defined as one where achievements in social, economic, and physical development are ensured to last for generations to come. SCs are protected from environmental hazards at acceptable risk levels. Social and economic development are based on SCs. SCs rely on broad-based local governance. The SCs Program is part of the larger aim of sustainable development that applies specialized knowledge of urban environmental management at local, national, regional, and global levels. The SCs Program relies on a learning-based process of data collection among partner cities. The Program is driven by local needs and opportunities. The SCs Program relies on inter-agency cooperation and is a joint UN Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS) and UN Environmental Program (UNEP) effort. Broad-based local governance means reliance on local technical and financial resources and mobilization and application of these resources from the local private, public, and community sectors. SCs Program funding has grown from $100,000 to $20 million. Funding comes from UNCHS, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, WHO, ILO, the Netherlands, Denmark, Canada, Italy, and France. Demonstration projects are in 20 cities around the globe and follow Agenda 21 strategies and plans. Cities include Accra, Asuncion, Concepcion, Dar es Salaam, Dakar, Guayaquil, Ibadan, Ismailia, Katowice, Madras, Shenyang, Tunis, and Wuhan. Some cities are ready to move from pilot to national replication. The aim is to include environmental management within urban development decision-making and to strengthen local capacity. City level success indicates that the SCs Program is an excellent facility for interagency collaboration.
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