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Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2007 Apr; 22(1):3-7.While the science of demography addresses the whole of the human population, substantive demographic research is most often focused on populations with common characteristics. For the last six decades the nation state has been the social unit that has dominated demographic research. The reasons for this focus make perfect sense. Nations define their populations in terms of citizenship and define the ways in which people will be identified in any effort to count the numbers. They have the authority, the interest and the resources to carry out collections of information about members of these defined populations. As members of the United Nations they collaborate with other nations to develop the methodological and technical tools used to analyse national population numbers in ways that are relevant to state policies and actions. In short, the nation is the foundation unit for understanding human population composition and growth. Global population numbers are estimated by compiling the information collected by nations. Interest in populations of units smaller than the nation also relies on national statistical collections and national definitions of component populations, but for most users of data the focus is on the nation, and not the units beyond or below that political entity. (excerpt)
Harare, Zimbabwe, UNICEF-Harare, 1994 Jun. v, 113 p.This volume provides a situation analysis of social, economic, structural, and political conditions in Zimbabwe. 14 chapters cover a wide range of topics, including history, geography, demography, government and administration, food security and nutrition, information networks, women's status, laws and statutes, health, AIDS' impact on women and children, education, water and environmental sanitation, orphans, refugees, and the handicapped. The overview describes the situation of children in Zimbabwe as dependent on class and race, gender and place of birth, education and job opportunities, marital prospects, and access to land and resources. Zimbabwe is viewed as a young country, which has experienced independence for only 14 years. In 1990, immunization covered 85% of all children. Infant and child mortality declined. Life expectancy increased. Primary school enrollment rose to 2.1 million. Over the past 14 years the government has expanded social services and enacted legislation for improving the status of women. Recently social indicators have declined. The reasons are multiple and complex. Some of the reasons are identified as the 1991-92 drought, the global recession, structural adjustment programs, declines in real per capita spending on social programs, the HIV epidemic and associated epidemics of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, and decreased investment in infrastructure.