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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Midwifery education and maternal and neonatal health issues: Challenges in Pakistan.

    Rukanuddin RJ; Ali TS; McManis B

    Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2007 Jul-Aug; 52(4):398-405.

    Although numerous health care interventions have been implemented in Pakistan, the high maternal and neonatal mortality rates still remain a challenge. Developed countries have reduced maternal and neonatal mortality rates by improving the skill and knowledge levels of nurse-midwives. This paper reviews maternal and neonatal health issues, challenges in current midwifery education, and the role of government and international agencies in Pakistan. The exact maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Pakistan are unknown; a census has not occurred since 1998, and data provided in more recent studies were presented in summary format. A number of factors that contribute to the high mortality rate could easily be controlled by using competent nurse-midwives throughout all levels of the Pakistani health care system. A reduction in the maternal mortality rate is likely to occur if the Pakistan government and international agencies work together to implement specific recommendations in maternal and neonatal health. These recommendations include: 1) holding an invitational conference; 2) strengthening the existing midwifery and Lady Health Visitor curricula; 3) pilot testing an expanded midwifery program; and 4) advocating for and obtaining political commitments and resources for midwifery education. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Global survey on education in emergencies.

    Bethke L; Braunschweig S

    New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2004. viii, 146 p.

    In 2000, at the World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, 180 countries committed to “ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances [including those affected by war] and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality” (UNESCO 2000). Despite this commitment, education in emergencies remains undersupported. In addition, there is no clear global picture of education programming in emergencies, partially because there are a number of organizations—governmental, United Nations, nongovernmental (NGOs), religious—that provide much-needed education services in these situations and also because there is no centralized statistical reporting system for capturing the education data from all these sources. This Global Survey on Education in Emergencies (Global Survey) is an attempt to gather information on how many refugee, displaced and returnee children and youth have access to education and the nature of the education they receive. The Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children began the Global Survey in 2001 with initial support from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Accordingly, the first wave of data collection focused on interviews and document review at the headquarters level of these three UN agencies. Subsequent data collection in 2002-2003 involved interviews and document review at the headquarters of various international NGOs, direct requests to NGO field offices, extensive internet-based research and four brief field visits to Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Thailand to gather information directly from agencies supporting education for refugee and internally displaced children and youth. While information was collected on a broad range of education projects, from formal to non-formal, the primary focus was on formal education activities. (excerpt)
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