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  1. 1
    374440

    Taking ownership and driving progress: leading the global movement towards FP2020.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2014 Nov. 8 p.

    This publication outlines how, following the London Summit on Family Planning in 2012, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has worked to engage governments, with the aim of building a conducive environment to reach the most vulnerable groups, no matter how remote their location, in order to reach the key goal of ensuring 120 million more women have access to family planning by 2020.
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  2. 2
    296555

    The strategy of humanitarian assistance.

    Kunugi T

    UN Chronicle. 1987 May; 24:[4] p..

    Recent studies on emergency and disaster relief have pointed to the need to further strengthen and improve the emergency-related capacities of the United Nations system and for arrangements for more effective use of those capacities. Nearly 40 per cent of the total United Nations resources during 1984 and 1985 were allocated to humanitarian activities, surpassing the percentage resources--some 34 per cent--for operational activities and other programmes in the economic and social sectors. Furthermore, in the past few years there has been a marked increase in resource allocation for humanitarian assistance around the world. In his book, The Quality of Mercy, William Shawcross says: "Humanitarian aid is often required because of abject political failure. It is neither intended, nor is it able, to resolve political crises that Governments have created or at least failed to address.' Referring to the Kampuchean operation, he states that one effect of such aid has been "to reinforce the political stalemate". Thus humanitarian aid does have political implications, with both pitfalls and constructive potential for facilitating a solution to an impasse. Because of ever-increasing humanitarian problems and such political implications, there is definite need for a new policy science of humanitarian assistance in the world today. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    292226

    Women's participation in the city consultation process.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    Over the past fifteen years, there has been increasing evidence of the advantages of involving “the beneficiaries” in the development process. From a relatively passive involvement as providers of information, this involvement has changed both quantitatively and qualitatively, so that it is now accepted that the stakeholders should be involved in all stages of the process from design to implementation and evaluation. Through such involvement, civil society, especially the poor, effectively become partners in the project and the development process. The Urban Management Programme (UMP), a joint programme of UN-HABITAT, UNDP and the World Bank, has extended this principle to other domains of governance, partly out of recognition that government alone is not able to decide on the priority issues and the future vision for the city. More significantly, bringing the civil society into the development process as partners provides more than just additional resources. The increase in commitment, knowledge and expertise plus the shared sense of ownership provide better chances for successful outcomes. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    279954
    Peer Reviewed

    Response by Leonard S. Rubenstein.

    Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:879-881.

    This exchange has helped identify common ground and focus questions before us. Kenneth Roth and I agree that strategies for realizing economic, social, and cultural rights must not only include but also go beyond “naming and shaming.” I read his initial article as contending that naming and shaming is “the most productive way” for international human rights organizations to address these rights and criticizing other strategies as ineffective or even counterproductive. He now agrees to the existence of “other important methodologies”;1 I believe discussion of these other methods to achieve economic, social, and cultural rights remains one of the key tasks of the international human rights movement. On the question of allocating resources to realize economic, social, and cultural rights, I agree with Ken Roth that international human rights organizations, using naming and shaming strategies, can and should challenge allocation decisions when they are arbitrary or discriminatory and, as I point out below, when they fail to fulfill obligations for particular rights. Another question, though, also demands our attention: What should these organizations do in the face of the failure, or even resistance, of both national governments and international donors to provide the resources desperately needed to realize economic, social, and cultural rights that are within their capacity to provide. I believe that international human rights organizations should step up their efforts, often in conjunction with partners in effected countries, to increase overall spending on the realization of economic, social, and cultural rights, always seeking to enlarge the pot of resources; doing so, however, will require strategies in addition to naming and shaming. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    093362

    Better health in Africa.

    World Bank. Africa Technical Department. Human Resources and Poverty Division

    [Unpublished] 1993 Dec. xii, 217, [2] p. (Report No. 12577-AFR)

    The World Bank has recommended a blueprint for health improvement in sub-Saharan Africa. African countries and their external partners need to reconsider current health strategies. The underlying message is that many African countries can achieve great improvements in health despite financial pressure. The document focuses on the significance of enhancing the ability of households and communities to identify and respond to health problems. Promotion of poverty-centered development strategies, more educational opportunities for females, strengthening of community monitoring and supervision of health services, and provision of information on health conditions and services to the public are also important. Community-based action is vital. The report greatly encourages African governments to reform their health care systems. It advocates basic packages of health services available to everyone through health centers and first referral hospitals. Health care system reform also includes improving management of health care inputs (e.g., drugs) and new partnerships between public agencies and nongovernmental health care providers. Ministries of Health should concentrate more on policy formulation and public health activities, encourage private voluntary organizations, and establish an environment conducive to the private sector. African countries need more efficient allocation and management of public financial resources for health to boost their effect on critical health indicators (e.g., child mortality). Public resources should also be reallocated from less productive activities to health activities. More commitment from governments and domestic sources and an increase of external assistance are needed for low income African countries. The first action step should be a national agenda for health followed by action planning and setting goals to measure progress.
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