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  1. 1
    186403

    How to accelerate progress toward the millennium development goals.

    Baird M; Shetty S

    Finance and Development. 2003 Dec; 40(4):14-19.

    With just 12 years left to achieve the W Millennium Development Goals, a greater sense of urgency is needed by all sides if the targets are to be met. Many developing countries are making substantial progress toward the MDGs as a result of improved policies, better governance, and the productive use of development assistance. But they could do more with the right mix of policy reforms and additional help. Scaling up efforts to meet the MDGs by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges. By acting now, developed countries can hasten progress by providing more and better aid and by allowing greater access to their markets. Developing countries, for their part, will need to continue to improve their policies and the way they are implemented. Without greater impetus, there is a serious risk that many countries will fall far short on many of the goals. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    201535

    Report. European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population: Integrated Strategies, February 12-13, 1986, the Hague, Netherlands.

    European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population

    [The Hague, Netherlands, European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women and Population, 1986.] 109 p.

    This report summarizes the consensus of the European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population. They have had the opportunity to examine integrated approaches to several of the world's most crucial issues of social development. Their co-sponsors, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Population FUND, have been active in promoting integrated strategies to provide health for all, survival and well-being of mothers and children, family planning, and full and equal participation of men and women in the development process. But a great deal more remains to be done. The parliamentarians subscribe to the view that the effectiveness of the UN system will increase considerably in pursuit of commonly defined goals and objectives and action programs as defined in various conferences and meetings. Common action plans are available; the challenge now is to engage in a combined and concerted effort to implement these plans. Their role as parliamentarians is to implement the recommendations of today and to build up support, both within the governmental and the private sectors. Public perception tends to overlook the significant contributions the UN and related bodies are making to improve conditions of life and well-being the world over. The main tasks all have agreed on are 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work together closely and to and enhance the effectiveness of their programs; 2) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of issues relating to health, mother and child survival and care, the role and status of women, and freedom of choice for both men and women in family matters; 3) seeking greater support for social development programs of the UN, which ultimately strengthens the UN as a whole, through increased governmental contributions and better public understanding; and 4) maintaining and strengthening their own commitment through dialogues among themselves as parliamentarians.
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  3. 3
    047873

    Recommendations of the Mexico City forum.

    International Forum on Population Policies in Development Planning

    POPULI. 1987; 14(2):45-50.

    Reaffirming the basic principle of sovereignty of nations and reiterating the right of all nations to formulate and implement population and development policies in the light of their own priorities and practical circumstances the Mexico City Forum calls on governments to enhance their commitment at the highest level to the integration of population and development through appropriate political decisions. Recommendations are made regarding: population growth, including raising standards of living, improving the status of women, and reducing infant and child mortality; population distribution, including reduction in the inequities in quality of life, both perceived and actual, between urban and rural areas; and the integration of population and development policy by establishing appropriate institutional frameworks, creating awareness and promoting training and research.
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  4. 4
    051379

    Child survival and development education in Uganda.

    Kajubi WS

    BERC BULLETIN. 1987 Mar; (15):18-20.

    20 years of instability in government in Uganda has lead to an economic collapse and a breakdown in the health care system. The water system failed, hospitals and equipment collapsed, and doctors and medical personnel left the country. Many children who die or are disabled are victims of lack of education. UNICEF has joined with local religious organizations to fight this problem and educate communities on good health practices, especially immunization for children. Use of the mass media is an important part of this program and private print as well as government television and radio are used. The scouts and guides program with UNICEF trained 1000 on immunization service and they will train 10,000 parents. A child health care center developed, with the assistance of UNICEF, conducts workshops in child survival and trains nurses and medical students. An expert panel sets up curricula for schools which includes the following issues: nutrition, water, sanitation, immunization, common diseases, family health, social problems, accidents, and primary health care. This program has been tested in 20 primary schools, and is expected to become country wide. The Child-to Child program is a world-wide group that teaches school age children to become aware of their health. It also promotes public awareness of child health including physical, mental, and social needs. This program has set up many activities including the following: workshops with teachers, students, parents, and others for health education, hospital visits to children, school cleaning competitions, artist workshops, contracts in other countries such as Norway, time on government television and radio, and book publication.
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  5. 5
    049240

    Uganda.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-6.

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.
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  6. 6
    049238

    Kuwait.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.

    The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.
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  7. 7
    049237

    Djibouti.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Feb; 1-7.

    The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti franc, and the official exchange rate is 177 DF to US$1. Djibouti's imports amount to $230 million, most of which are consumed in the country and paid for by French economic assistance and $3 million a year from the US. Djibouti is a member of the UN, the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Nonaligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD).
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