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Population Research and Policy Review. 2005 Jan; 24(1):85-106.Our case studies of the evolution of population policies in Kenya and Malawi offer insights into the interaction between the global population movement and national governments. The comparison is useful because it permits identifying the common strategies of a global movement, strategies that are likely to be evident elsewhere; it also permits identifying differences in national responses related to particular domestic contexts. We find a common repertory of movement strategies to influence the governments of Kenya and Malawi to adopt a neo-Malthusian population policy and to implement a family planning program. However, these strategies were promoted more or less aggressively depending on the national response and the chronological period. National responses were related to differences in the governments' approaches to nation-building, their willingness to accept foreign influence and the importance they placed on preserving cultural traditions, and to their assessment of benefits they would gain from responding favorably to movement proposals. The data come from written accounts and from interviews with international actors and Kenyan and Malawian elites who participated in the policy development process. (author's)
IPPF COUNTRY PROFILES. 1992 Jan; 19-24.A country profile of demographic/statistical data, social and health aspects, and government policies and program in Pakistan particularly as they relate to family planning is presented by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Finding current population growth too high and impeding of development, the government enacted a population policy in 1991 aimed at reducing population growth to 2.5% in 10 years. An integrated approach will stress population education in secondary schools, the use of mobile services to promote birth spacing and provide maternal-child health care, and the provision of services through government facilities and family welfare centers. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Pakistan was created in 1953, and became a member of the IPPF in 1954. It promotes family planning through education, clinics, and the use of male community institutions, and is the main provider of services. The organization also campaigns for both more government involvement in family planning and improvements in the status of women. 16% of married women practice contraception. Female sterilization is the most popular method, followed by condoms. with husband's consent, sterilization is permitted for married women with at least 2-3 children. Abortion is legal only to save a woman's life. Family planning constraints, education, demographic trends, health issues, status of women, contraceptive availability and accessibility, and the operations and funding of the family planning association are fully discussed.