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Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Nov; 7(11):705.An expert advisory group, convened by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), has concluded that it would be inadvisable to embark on a widespread pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccination programme in European countries at the present time. Pre-pandemic vaccines, currently being developed by several pharmaceutical companies, can be made ahead of the emergence of pandemic influenza virus, unlike "true" pandemic vaccines. However, experts have concluded that there remains too much uncertainty as to whether the H5N1 avian influenza virus, on which pre-pandemic vaccines currently under development are based, will ever be responsible for a pandemic. According to Johan Giesecke (ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden), "If there is an H5N1-based pandemic, the strategy of having stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 vaccines, even if the vaccines incompletely match the pandemic virus, may prevent more infections and deaths than waiting for specific "true" pandemic vaccines...however, there is no guarantee that the next human influenza pandemic will evolve from the current H5N1 avian influenza virus". (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Feb. 79 p. (UNAIDS/05.28E)This report summarizes UNAIDS' assistance to countries in 2004 and 2005. Drawn from the reports of UNAIDS' Country Coordinators from over 75 countries, the report is divided into five chapters. Basic information on UNAIDS and how it operates, especially at country-level. How UNAIDS is contributing to implementation of the "Three Ones" principles. The many ways in which UNAIDS has assisted countries in strengthening their responses to AIDS. How UNAIDS is working to enhance the United Nations system's capacity to assist countries in responding to AIDS. How UNAIDS plans to meet key challenges for the future. (excerpt)
In: The HIV challenge to education: a collection of essays, edited by Carol Coombe. Paris, France, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, 2004. 17-36. (Education in the Context of HIV / AIDS)This paper considers the consequences the HIV/AIDS pandemic is having on education, within the context of the global poverty discourse. It considers the scale and scope of the pandemic and its anticipated impact on learners, educators and education systems particularly in heavily-infected sub-Saharan Africa countries. It looks for lessons derived from 20 years of coping with HIV/AIDS in the SADC region. It includes proposals for improving the education sector's response to the pandemic in order to protect education provision and quality, and to mitigate the distress of increasing numbers of orphans and other vulnerable children. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue, Culture and Development Section, 2005. 83 p. (CLT/CPD/CAD-05/4B)Evaluating and effectively responding to the global challenge of the HIV epidemic requires an indepth understanding of the strong correlation between health and social, cultural and economic conditions, and how these shape behaviour at both individual and societal levels. While the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Armenia is comparatively low, the rate is growing rapidly. Current prevalence among officially registered cases is 0.02%. The actual rate of prevalence is estimated to be approximately ten times higher, with a greater prevalence among distinct key population groups. Among the factors driving the HIV epidemic in the country - which faces profound socio-economic, political and cultural changes - are: a particular negative and fearful attitude towards the disease; discrimination against people living with HIV; low level of HIV and AIDS awareness among the population; and an increase in injecting drug use and commercial sex work. In Armenia, HIV-positive people are primarily associated with three key populations that are socially marginalized: commercial sex workers (CSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM). For many years an individual's positive HIV status has been equated with immoral behaviour. As a result, PLHIV face aggression. Moreover, it is taboo to openly discuss HIV and AIDS, resulting in the further isolation of PLHIV. Currently many programmes have been implemented in Armenia to surmount stigmatization. However, this process demands numerous long-term activities and commitments from the state. (excerpt)
The evaluation of UNESCO Brazil's contribution to the Brazilian AIDS Programme: final report. [Evaluación del aporte de UNESCO Brasil al programa brasileño de lucha contra el SIDA: informe final]
Brasilia, Brazil, UNESCO, 2005 Jul.  p. (BR/2005/PI/H/19)This report focuses on the evaluation of the AIDS II programme, as implemented by the UNESCO office in Brazil. The AIDS epidemic has been addressed with particular vigour in Brazil, which is widely recognised as a country that has developed a distinctive and successful model of policy coordination and implementation with regard to HIV/AIDS. In addition to substantial national investment, Brazil has enjoyed co-financing from international sources especially the World Bank. In the course of three programmes - AIDS I (1994-1998), AIDS II (1998-2003) and AIDS III (2003-2007) - the World Bank committed some $365 million, matching a Brazilian Treasury contribution of $325 million. AIDS II with a total resource of $300 million is the largest of these programmes. Since the mid-1990s the UNESCO office in Brazil has grown in terms of funds managed - from some $4.5 million to $108.0 million in 2004, and in staff and activities. The overwhelming proportion of budgetary growth has come from 'extra-budgetary' resources. These are mainly Technical Cooperation agreements with the Brazilian government and with international bodies such as the World Bank. UNESCO was the 'implementing agency' along with UNODC for the AIDS II programme since its launch in 1998. In 2002, the Executive Board of UNESCO accepted a recommendation in an earlier evaluation of UNESCO programmes in Brazil2 that the AIDS II activities of UNESCO be evaluated. This evaluation was subsequently commissioned by the Brasilia office of UNESCO. (excerpt)
Keeping the promise: summary of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS, United Nations General Assembly, Special Session on HIV / AIDS, 25-27 June 2001, New York.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 Jun. 33 p. (UNAIDS/02.31E; PN-ACP-799)At the meeting, Heads of State and Representatives of Governments issued the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. This Declaration describes in its preamble (paragraphs 1–36), the extent of the epidemic, the effects it has had, and the ways to combat it. The Declaration then states what governments have pledged to do—themselves, with others in international and regional partnerships, and with the support of civil society— to reverse the epidemic. The Declaration is not a legally binding document. However, it is a clear statement by governments concerning that which they have agreed should be done to fight HIV/AIDS and that which they have committed to doing, often with specific deadlines. As such, the Declaration is a powerful tool with which to guide and secure action, commitment, support and resources for all those fighting the epidemic, both within and outside government. This booklet simplifies and summarizes the text of the Declaration in an effort to make it more accessible to all and to encourage everyone to do his or her part to put it into action. Where possible, it pairs relevant paragraphs from the preamble with relevant sections from the body of the Declaration. The bold text in quotes is taken directly from the Declaration. Also included are quotes from some of the statements made by speakers at the meeting, as well as from people affected by HIV/AIDS. It should be stressed that the paragraphs in this booklet are simplified versions of those found in the Declaration. They should not be substituted for the full, original text when formal reference to the Declaration is needed. The original text is attached as an annex for easy reference. (excerpt)
Paris, France, OECD, 2004 Jun. 22 p.This report presents the results of a review of statistical data on aid to HIV/AIDS control, carried out by the DAC Secretariat in collaboration with members of the DAC Working Party on Statistics (WPSTAT) and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) between February and May 2004. The objectives of this review were to: verify the data on aid to HIV/AIDS control reported to the CRS Aid Activity database for years 2000-02 and complete these so as to provide definitive statistics for the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok; assess the extent to which the standard statistical methodology allowed the bulk of these flows to be identified; and make proposals for improving data collection in the future. The report first recalls the background and rationale of the study (section II) and explains how it was carried out (section III). It then presents members’ contributions in a summary form (section IV). The data are presented in a number of tables, but some descriptive information on members’ HIV/AIDS activities is also given. Further actions to improve the quality of statistics in this field are suggested in section V. (excerpt)
Metropolis. 2003 Oct 3;  p..The defining issue of modernity is control of women's fertility. It is this question -- more than religion, politics, economics or the "clash of civilizations" -- that forms the deepest dividing line in the world today. It is a line that cuts through every nation, every people, from the highest level of organized society down to, in many cases, the divided minds and emotions of individual men and women. (excerpt)
How to bridge the gap between policies and implementation -- is effective AIDS control presently possible in sub-Saharan Africa? [editorial]
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2003 Sep; 8(9):765-766.The leaders of sub-Saharan states must act now, and the international community must be prepared to respond effectively to save these societies from further destruction. The international response would have to include a revision of current policies in the light of experiences gained. We need a mixed approach: support for both for ‘sustainable’ strengthening of the whole system in line with health sector reforms and non-sustainable project support for specifically directed temporary efforts in line with the thinking behind the establishment of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. We owe this to the suffering people in these countries. We also owe it to taxpayers in industrialized countries who are both willing to pay and have a genuine desire to help. (excerpt)
AIDS Asia. 1999 Nov-Dec; 20.This article describes the efforts to bring nongovernmental organizations, government and international authorities together to form a united front against HIV/AIDS championing the cause of prevention, control and management of HIV/AIDS in Mumbai, India.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2001 Aug 2. 15 p.This document is from the heads of State and Government and representatives of States and Governments at the August 2, 2001 UN Special Session of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. The declaration reviews and addresses the problem of HIV/AIDS in all its aspects, and argues for securing a global commitment to enhance coordination and intensify national, regional and international efforts to combat it in a comprehensive manner.
Brussels, Belgium, International Crisis Group, 2002. 11 p.This paper reviews the HIV/AIDS crisis in Myanmar. It describes the extent of the crisis in the region, the government's response against it, as well as of the UN agencies, non-governmental organizations, and other sectors.
WORLD BANK POLICY AND RESEARCH BULLETIN. 1998 Jan-Mar; 9(1):1-5.According to the 1997 World Bank Policy Research Report "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic," 250 million people live in countries with generalized epidemics, where the rate of infection is highest among people who have the most risky behavior and at least 5% of women attending antenatal clinics are infected with HIV. Countries in this group include most countries of eastern and southern Africa, a few West African countries, and Guyana and Haiti. 1.6 billion people live in countries with concentrated epidemics, where more than 5% of those with the riskiest behavior are infected with HIV, but the rate of infection among pregnant women is low. Most of Indochina, Latin America, and West Africa, as well as China's Yunnan Province and about half of India are in this category. Half of the population of the developing world, 2.3 billion people, live in areas with nascent epidemics. Especially governments in countries with nascent epidemics need to take immediate action to prevent the further spread of HIV. This paper explains the reasons why government action is needed and what governments should do to prevent the spread of HIV infection and help people with AIDS. Prevention must be the key strategy of AIDS policy in developing countries, focusing upon changing the behavior of those at highest risk of contracting and spreading the virus. Efforts must also be made to disseminate information on HIV/AIDS, lower the cost of condom use, and lower the cost of unsafe injecting behavior. As much as they can with constrained resources, governments need to improve access to treatment for people with AIDS and prevent discrimination against them. Donor support for national AIDS programs is often critical.
VIETNAM POPULATION NEWS. 1998 Apr-Jun; (7):4-5.More than 8500 HIV/AIDS cases have thus far been reported in Vietnam. However, 6-10 times more people are actually estimated to be infected. In 1997, the government of Vietnam allocated about US$4 million to the country's national anti-AIDS program, and plans to mobilize another US$1 million for the program from domestic and international donors. Condom use needs to be promoted in Vietnam to help thwart the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), to help reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies, and to garner greater male involvement and responsibility in family planning. Considerable efforts are being made to prevent the spread of HIV among Vietnam's youth. 90% of the more than 8500 HIV cases reported in Vietnam were among people under age 30 years, and about 5% were under age 19. In May 1998, the Vietnam Youth Union launched a nationwide program to help check the spread of HIV among youth, the UN Program for HIV/AIDS in Vietnam has targeted youth in its 1998 global anti-AIDS campaign, and UNICEF is developing youth-friendly activities such as youth clubs and youth mobile communication teams to improve youth's access to information and awareness. UNICEF is also working together with the Ministry of Education and Training to integrate life skills into the school curriculum, while the UNDCP is focusing upon HIV/AIDS prevention efforts among young drug users. UNFPA is working with the Youth Union to promote the use of condoms, disseminate information on HIV/AIDS, and integrate family planning and HIV/AIDS issues into the school curriculum, and the World Health Organization has pledged to stress the prevention and control of STDs for young people at risk.
AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1998 Aug; 8(4):1.A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries.
AIDS. 1998; 12(5 Suppl):12-3.HIV/AIDS is exacting a heavy toll upon developing countries and already reversing progress made in improving living standards and reducing poverty. Policymakers in developing countries face many very serious problems. A recently published World Bank report argues that there are strong economic rationales for governments to be involved in fighting the AIDS epidemic in developing countries and proposes a framework for allocating government resources in the most effective way to prevent and control AIDS. Key findings of the report are presented with regard to the impact of AIDS in developing countries, government priorities in preventing the epidemic, and the need for urgent action. The responsibilities of governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international donors are also considered. It is important that governments and donors work together to prioritize their activities against AIDS.
AIDS CARE. 1991; 3(4):395-8.While scientists demonstrated that they have pushed ahead in developing treatment and a vaccine for AIDS, comparatively little was voiced regarding AIDS as a development issue at the 7th Conference on AIDS. In the context of socioeconomic development, President Museveni of Uganda and others spoke on AIDS, recognizing the need for behavioral change in preventing HIV infection. The family was also recognized as a basic unit of caring, important in fostering global solidarity. Topics discussed included the fusion of technology and human response in the fight against AIDS, NGO-government integration, community home care, and the need for an difficulty of measuring behavior change. In research, evidence was presented attesting to the cost-effectiveness of home care, while other types of research interventions, the effectiveness of audiovisual media in message dissemination, evaluation methods, and ethnographic methods for program design and evaluation were also explored. Where participants addressed psychosocial factors in development, little was presented on training. Informal discussions were robust, and covered the need for academic research, the process of an international conference, program principle transferability, and counseling. There was, however, an overall realization at the conference that progress is slow, AIDS challenges human nature, and coordinated international efforts may be incapable of effecting more rapid positive change. Even though sweeping solutions to AIDS did not emerge from this conference, more appropriate programs and conferences may develop in the future, with this conference opening AIDS in the arenas of community, development, hope and science.
HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.