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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    The contribution of Asian scientists to global research in andrology.

    Waites GM

    Asian Journal of Andrology. 1999 Jun; 1:7-12.

    The aim was to present a personal account of the involvement of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the collaborative development in Asia of those areas of andrology concerned with male contraception and reproductive health. The andrology training through workshops and institution support undertaken by the WHO Human Reproduction Programme (HRP) and how they contributed to the strengthening of andrology research in Asia are summarised. The author's experience and the Asian scientific contributions to the global research in the following areas are reviewed: the safety of vasectomy and the development of new methods of vas occlusion; gossypol and its failure to become a safe, reversible male antifertility drug; Tripterygium and whether its pure extracts will pass through the appropriate toxicology and phased clinical studies to become acceptable contraceptive drugs; hormonal methods of contraception for men. The WHO policy of research capacity building through training and institution strengthening, together with the collaboration of Asian andrologists, has created strong National institutions now able to direct their own programmes of research in clinical and scientific andrology. (author's)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Development of methods of male contraception: impact of the World Health Organization Task Force.

    Waites GM

    Fertility and Sterility. 2003 Jul; 80(1):1-15.

    Objective: To give an historical record of the research of the World Health Organization (WHO) Task Force to develop methods of male contraception; to examine the social, political, medical, pharmaceutical, funding, and other factors that influenced progress; and to suggest reasons why such methods are only now becoming available. Design: Review of basic and clinical research over 30 years. Setting: Task force of a multinational agency and collaborating agencies. Conclusion(s): Through the involvement of many international scientists, the WHO Task Force has uniquely contributed to the exploratory phases of the research in male contraception and by its multicenter contraceptive efficacy studies has accelerated progress towards the ideal hormonal method. Despite an adverse climate involving social and political attitudes, funding constraints, and pharmaceutical industry hesitations, WHO formed coalitions with governments and international agencies to sustain research with results that apply to men in culturally diverse populations and thereby to influence activities across the whole range of global reproductive health and family planning. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Looking for the "male pill".

    Herndon N

    NETWORK. 1992 Aug; 13(1):20-3.

    Researchers are pursuing 2 approaches to developing a male contraceptive drug. 1 approach centers around suppression of sperm production the other around blocking conception. Researchers are looking at introducing hormonal contraceptives into men's bodies via injections or implants to stop sperm production. Both forms of these possible male contraceptives will not be available for many years, however. A WHO study on testosterone enanthate of men in 7 countries reveals total suppression of sperm production occurred in almost all the Asian men, but only about 60% suppression occurred in other ethnic groups. A current WHO study is examining whether a hormonal contraceptive which is not 100% effective can be useful if it would be more effective than barrier methods. The Population Council is conducting research on 2 capsule implants with 1 capsule releasing luteinizing hormone releasing hormone 13 to halt sperm production while the other releases an androgen to maintain sex drive. Animal tests indicate complete contraception with no side effects. The other possible means of suppressing sperm production is administration of a cottonseed oil extract called gossypol which appears to stop sperm production thereby eliminating the need for concurrent androgen administration. Yet it does cause potassium depletion in some men which can result in arrhythmias. An antifertility vaccine comprises the 2nd approach. Several US researchers are exploring an antifertility vaccine to produce antibodies only to the specialized sperm surface needed to attach to the egg. The 1st antifertility vaccine would probably be in pill form and a woman's contraceptive since it is earlier to target the smaller number of sperm in the oviduct than in the testes.
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  4. 4

    Evaluation of the work of the Task Force on Indigenous Plants for Fertility Regulation of the Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction.

    Karolinska Institutet. Institutionen for Toxikologi

    In: Assessment of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction [HRP]. II. Task Force reports. Country reports, [compiled by] Sweden. Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries [SAREC]. Stockholm, Sweden, SAREC, 1983 Apr. [46] p..

    This report describes and evaluates the work of the Task Force on Indigenous Plants for Fertility Regulation of the Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction at WHO. The goal of the project is to set up a network of collaborating centers to train personnel, design bioassays, isolate and test plant substances that are safe and effective by oral route for "morning after" pills or anti-implantation agents or male contraceptives. Plants chosen for assay were selected by a literature search including ethnomedical sources. All data were computerized, weighted and rank ordered. 300 of the 4500 species fell into the high priority group. 4 research centers now participate: Chinese University of Hong Kong, Seoul National University, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka and University of Illinois. In 1980-1981 the literature surveillance component of the Task Force provided bi-annual literature updates on the assigned plants. Primate studies are planned for 1982 and phase I human trials are anticipated in 1985 for the 1st compound. Zoapatle (Montanoa tomentosa) is a plant used for centuries in Mexico to terminate early pregnancy. An active compound, zoapatanol, and another more stable analogue are in pre-phase I trials. 4 plants from India are being examined for sperm agglutination activity, the spermatogenesis inhibiting effect of Koenchai (Chinese celery) and the mechanism of action of gossypol are being researched.
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