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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV-related lipodystrophy in Africa and Asia.

    Womack J

    AIDS Reader. 2009 Apr; 19(4):131-9, 148-52.

    This article reviews the medical literature for information about lipodystrophy in Africa and Asia. These 2 regions were selected because both are of particular interest to the declaration for universal access. Africa represents the epidemic's epicenter. Asia, especially India and China, will soon have HIV / AIDS prevalence rates that will outstrip those seen in the rest of the world combined. The methodology is summarized first: how articles were selected, the inclusion and exclusion criteria used, and how information was synthesized. The results and discussion focus on 3 specific areas: how lipodystrophy is defined and measured, the study populations, and the persons excluded from these studies. A summary of what is and what is not yet known about lipodystrophy in Africa and Asia is also included.
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  2. 2

    Water: mechanism of oral rehydration, water deficiency = deficiency in salt.

    von Hattingberg HM


    UNICEF promotes the use of a very effective, inexpensive treatment of dehydration in developing countries: oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which is oral administration of a solution with equimolar concentrations of sodium and glucose (osmolality of about 300 mosmol). The solution is isotonic with respect to total body water when it reaches the small intestine. It expands the extracellular fluid without changing serum osmolality, thus, brain edema does not occur. Further, metabolic degradation of glucose eventually releases free water. On the other hand, intravenous rehydration with saline solution can be lethal, causing excess free water to expand shrunken cells and, thereby, causing brain swelling, rupture of blood vessels and hemorrhage. Yet, physicians and other health workers in developed countries have been quite sow to accept ORT. Leading conditions of dehydration include insensible loss of water and heat through evaporation from the respiratory tract and skin (common in dry air, hot environment, and fever), sensible loss of water and heat through perspiration (common in hot, humid environment and with warm and absorbent clothing), and irritation of the intestinal mucosa by allergies, infections, toxins, and intolerance to some nutrients, resulting in diarrhea. Diarrhea is indeed the main cause of dehydration. Other causes of dehydration are: failure of the hypothalamus to secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH), kidney unresponsiveness to ADH, diabetes mellitus, protein-rich nutrition, catabolic states, and brush-border lactase after weaning. Physiological changes in dehydration consist of rigidity of the connective tissue (vascular system and lungs) and intracellular fluid loss to the extracellular spaces, resulting in dry mucous membranes, shrunken muscle cells in the lips and the tongue, soft eyes, and adverse effects to the central nervous system. Children become dehydrated more readily than adults, but they tolerate it better.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Super ORS.

    Bhattacharya SK; Dutta P; Dutta D; Chakraborti MK

    INDIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Jan-Mar; 34(1):35-7.

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) prevents severe morbidity and death from mild to moderate dehydration from acute diarrhea for all ages and all etiologies. WHO advises ORT fluid to contain 3.5 g sodium chloride, 3.5 g potassium chloride, 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or 2.9 g trisodium citrate dihydrate, and 20 g glucose all dissolved in 1 1 of water. This fluid does not reduce stool volume or frequency and does not curtail duration thus it is not always acceptable. Improved ORT is needed, however. The glucose concentration cannot be increased above the present 2% since an increased concentration would intensify diarrhea and dehydration. Researchers are working on an improved solution (Super ORS) which would rehydrate the body and actively bring on reabsorption of endogenous secretions in the intestine. Thus this improved ORS would reduce stool volume, shorten duration of diarrhea, and allow early introduction of feeding. Even though some studies demonstrate that fortified ORS with the amino acid glycine decreases stool volume by 49-70% and duration of diarrhea 28-30%, other studies indicate that it induces excess sodium concentrations in the blood. 1 study demonstrates that in comparison with the standard ORS, ORS fortified with the amino acid L-alanine reduced the severity of symptoms and the need for fluid in patients afflicted with cholera and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Further studies reveal that rice powder based ORS (50-80 g/l) reduces stool volume 24-49% and duration of duration 30%. The advantage of using rice is that when it hydrolyzes glucose, amino acids, and oligopeptides emerge. Each 1 of these chemicals facilitate sodium absorption through separate pathways. Disadvantages include the fuel must be used to cook the rice, rice based ORS ferments within 8-24 hours making it useless, and the rice or pop rice needs to be ground.
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  4. 4

    Once-a-month estrogen/progestogen injectables.

    d'Arcangues C

    ENTRE NOUS. 1991 Dec; (19):15.

    About 8 million women use the long acting injectable contraceptive depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN). These progesterone only injectables are not dependent on sexual activity and are easy to administer. Yet they are not always well accepted since they can interfere with menstrual bleeding and often induce amenorrhea. Researchers find that adding estrogen to DMPA and NET-EN treats these irregularities. They must use esters with limited action to protect the endometrium from constant estrogens, however, which requires monthly injections. Thus bleeding occurs once a month just like the normal menstrual cycle. Clinical trials in China of Injectable No. 1 (250 mg 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and 5 mg estradiol valerate) show that it has few side effects and is acceptable. Other trials in China are evaluating monthly injectables with NET-EN or megestrol acetate. Numerous developing countries often as WHO's Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction for effective, safe, and fully studied monthly injectables. WHO operates under a 2 part strategy: optimum improvement of HPR 102 (50 m NET-EN and 5 mg estradiol valerate) and Cyclofem (25 mg DMPA and 5 mg estradiol cypionate) resulting in a reduction of the dose of at least 1 of the hormones and results of a study of the efficacy and side effects of these 2 injectables. It hopes the study provides the impetus to introduce them into national family planning programs. It demonstrates that they are indeed efficacious, effect fewer changes in the menstrual cycle than the progesterone only injectables, and are well accepted, even though women must go to a clinic every 27-33 days for an injection. Other studies are determining their effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. They are also looking at the time needed for ovulation to return. 1 study shows that menstruation returned in all women by the 3rd cycle.
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    [Some facts concerning injectable contraceptives: memorandum of a World Health Organization meeting] Quelques faits concernant les contraceptifs injectables: memorandum sur une reunion de l'OMS.

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1982; 60(4):535-48.

    This memorandum seeks to clarify issues concerning the safety of injectable contraceptives and to recommend areas for further research. Depo-Provera and norethindrone enanthate, 2 long-acting progestagen preparations, offer the important advantages in contraception of high efficacy, prolonged effect, and reversibility. Depo-Provera has been used since 1950 to treat a wide variety of complaints without serious side effects. It is estimated to have been used by about 10 million women for contraception and is currently used by about 1.5 million in 84 countries. Norethindrone enanthate has been much less widely used since its appearance in 1966 and is currently available in 40 countries. The Group on Toxicologic Evaluation, reviewing the results of longterm use of the 2 steroids in mice, rats, and rhesus monkeys, found no reason to modify their earlier position that the 2 substances were sufficiently safe for use in contraceptive programs. The Group also concluded that beagle dogs are inappropriate models for observation of the effects of the 2 steroids in women because of the predisposition of beagles to mammary tumors and acromegaly and because of differences in the specificity of their progesterone receptors. Some of the dosage levels used in the beagle studies were also questioned. Results of a large number of trials on women in numerous countries were reviewed regarding consequences of the different pharmacological properties of the 2 preparations, their effectiveness at different dosage levels, the nature and consequences of bleeding problems, current knowledge concerning their effects on lipid and glucose metabolism and liver function, possible carcinogenic effects, return of fertility, and effects of exposure in utero or through the mother's milk. None of the clinical or epidemiological studies was able to demonstrate life-threatening secondary effects. The most frequent secondary effect is the disturbance of menstrual cycles which is observed in the majority of women and is the most common cause of discontinuation. Although no serious short or longterm effects have been noted, the substances have been in use for a relatively short time. Research should proceed on the effects of longterm use of both steroids on lipid and glucose metabolism, on the appearance of neoplasms, and on the later development of the fetus or nursing child exposed to them. The study group concluded that Depo-Provera and norethindrone enanthate are acceptable methods of fertility regulation.
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