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WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience: Ultrasound examination. Highlights and key messages from the World Health Organization’s 2016 Global Recommendations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018 Jan. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/18.01; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief highlights the WHO recommendation on routine antenatal ultrasound examination and the policy and program implications for translating this recommendation into action at the country level.
Seminars In Perinatology. 2015 Oct; 39(6):430-6.Induction of labor in resource-limited settings has the potential to significantly improve health outcomes for both mothers and infants. However, there are relatively little context-specific data to guide practice, and few specific guidelines. Also, there may be considerable issues regarding the facilities and organizational capacities necessary to support safe practices in many aspects of obstetrical practice, and for induction of labor in particular. Herein we describe the various opportunities as well as challenges presented by induction of labor in these settings. Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. Highlights and key messages from the World Health Organization's 2015 Global Recommendations.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2015 Aug.  p. (WHO/RHR/15.16; WHO/MCA/15.02; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This evidence brief provides highlights and key messages from World Health Organization’s 2015 recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. The brief summarizes the recommended practices to improve the quality of care related to preterm birth and the outcomes for preterm infants. Additionally, justifications and policy implications associated with the recommendations are outlined. This brief is intended for policy-makers, programme managers, educators and health care providers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p. (WHO/RHR/15.17)This document presents the evidence base supporting the WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes in tabular form with over 50 tables presenting data on the interventions and their variations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.The present guideline is focused on interventions that could be provided during pregnancy, labour and during the newborn period with the aim of improving outcomes for preterm infants. Recommendations on interventions to prevent and reduce the risk of preterm birth or modify risk in at-risk pregnant women are outside the scope of this guideline.The primary audience for this guideline includes health-care professionals who are responsible for developing national and local health-care protocols and policies, as well as managers of maternal and child health programmes and policy-makers in all settings. The guideline will also be useful to those directly providing care to pregnant women and preterm infants, such as obstetricians, paediatricians, midwives, nurses and general practitioners. The information in this guideline will be useful for developing job aids and tools for pre- and in-service training of health workers to enhance their delivery of maternal and neonatal care relating to preterm birth. (Excerpts)
Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and intrauterine growth restriction, related or independent conditions?
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2006 Apr; 194(4):921-931.Preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and unexplained intrauterine growth restriction may have similar determinants and consequences. In this study, we compared determinants and perinatal outcomes associated with these obstetric conditions. We analyzed 39,615 pregnancies (data from the WHO Antenatal Care Trial), of which 2.2% were complicated by preeclampsia, 7.0% by gestational hypertension, and 8.1% by unexplained intrauterine growth restriction (ie, not associated with maternal smoking, maternal under-nutrition, preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, or congenital malformations). We compared the risk factors associated with these groups. Fetal death, preterm delivery, and severe neonatal morbidity and mortality were the primary outcomes. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for study site, socioeconomic status, and (if appropriate) birth weight and gestational age. Diabetes, renal or cardiac disease, previous preeclampsia, urinary tract infection, high maternal age, twin pregnancy, and obesity increased the risk of both hypertensive conditions. Previous large-for-age birth, reproductive tract surgery, antepartum hemorrhage and reproductive tract infection increased the risk for gestational hypertension only. Independent of maternal age, primiparity was a risk factor only for preeclampsia. Both preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were associated with increased risk for fetal death and severe neonatal morbidity and mortality. Mothers with preeclampsia compared with those with unexplained intrauterine growth restriction were more likely to have a history of diabetes, renal or cardiac disease, chronic hypertension, previous preeclampsia, body mass index more than 30 kg/cm2, urinary tract infection and extremes of maternal age. Conversely, unexplained intrauterine growth restriction was associated with higher risk of low birth weight in previous pregnancies, but not with previous preeclampsia. Both conditions increased the risk for perinatal outcomes independently but preeclampsia was associated with considerable higher risk. Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension shared many risk factors, although there are differences that need further evaluation. Both conditions significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Conversely, preeclampsia and unexplained intrauterine growth restriction, often assumed to be related to placental insufficiency, seem to be independent biologic entities. (author's)