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Applications of GIS for population and related statistics (INT/92/P92). Assessment of GIS and desktop mapping software options.
[Unpublished] . ii, 47 p.This report reviews a number of popular geographic information system (GIS) packages to provide information about GIS software options to statistical offices and UN agencies involved in the production and use of demographic data. Given the large number of GIS packages on the market and the speed at which the industry develops, this review only reflects the status of the packages as of the end of 1994. The paper discusses how GIS can contribute to the more effective application of population-related data and introduces some important GIS concepts. The evaluation is structured around the fundamental GIS operations of database development and management, data analysis, and output generation. Some issues regarding the institutional framework within which a GIS implementation takes place are also discussed. A number of general conclusions are drawn in a closing section based upon organizational experience with the different packages. Before making a GIS software purchase decision, all vendors should be contacted for information about their latest releases. This review also includes a bibliography of selected GIS references and a list of useful addresses.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
Harare, Zimbabwe, UNICEF-Harare, 1994 Jun. v, 113 p.This volume provides a situation analysis of social, economic, structural, and political conditions in Zimbabwe. 14 chapters cover a wide range of topics, including history, geography, demography, government and administration, food security and nutrition, information networks, women's status, laws and statutes, health, AIDS' impact on women and children, education, water and environmental sanitation, orphans, refugees, and the handicapped. The overview describes the situation of children in Zimbabwe as dependent on class and race, gender and place of birth, education and job opportunities, marital prospects, and access to land and resources. Zimbabwe is viewed as a young country, which has experienced independence for only 14 years. In 1990, immunization covered 85% of all children. Infant and child mortality declined. Life expectancy increased. Primary school enrollment rose to 2.1 million. Over the past 14 years the government has expanded social services and enacted legislation for improving the status of women. Recently social indicators have declined. The reasons are multiple and complex. Some of the reasons are identified as the 1991-92 drought, the global recession, structural adjustment programs, declines in real per capita spending on social programs, the HIV epidemic and associated epidemics of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, and decreased investment in infrastructure.
In: Environmental management and urban vulnerability, edited by Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 153-74. (World Bank Discussion Papers 168)Hazard-prone urban areas may be the only land available for squatter or other low-income settlements in developing countries because of lack of money. In many cities the scarcity of land is artificially induced by ineffective land management and inappropriate land regulation, lack of secure tenure, inadequate information, and inappropriate taxation. Excessive zoning regulation in Serpong, southwest of Jakarta, restricts residential use to only 34% of the total land area. More information is needed on land ownership, land values, land use; ambient environmental quality, waste management practices; health conditions; housing conditions; and natural hazards and associated risks. To accommodate the needs of low-income populations, one approach restricts development in designated hazard-prone areas but provides alternative safe sites for development while considering availability, location of existing roads and water/wastewater disposal systems, land values, and development pressures. Regulatory approaches including land use controls can be effective, but local officials in developing countries rarely use zoning effectively. Building regulations are important in controlling losses from floods and tropical cyclones. In 1982 the Caribbean Community Secretariat developed a Caribbean Uniform Building Code to reduce damages from tropical cyclones. Shoreline exclusion strategies can also limit residential and tourist development in areas at high risk of deaths and property losses from hurricanes, cyclones, tsunamis, soil liquefaction, land sinkage, and landslides. In the United States, the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 provides federally subsidized flood insurance for property in mapped flood-prone areas. Environmental impact assessments address whether a proposed project will be affected by natural hazards. Vulnerability assessments estimate the degree of damage from a natural phenomenon by analyzing human populations; capital resources such as settlements, lifelines, production facilities, public assembly facilities, and cultural patrimony; and economic activities and the normal functioning of settlements.
The forest resources of the temperate zones. Main findings of the UN-ECE / FAO 1990 Forest Resource Assessment.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. v, 32 p. (ECE/TIM/60)The main findings of the UN-ECE/FAO Forest Resource Assessment, 1990, now reflect a virtually complete set of basic forest inventory statistics of countries providing information for the assessment. This tool would be valuable and useful for policy makers, managers, and others concerned with forestry, ecology, conservation, and socioeconomic development. About 50% of the world's total forest resources are covered in this assessment. In process is the collection of corresponding data on the tropical and temperate zone developing regions. Assessment is made of 1) the world context, 2) basic information (land-use classification, forest types, species groups, stocked and unstocked forests, ownership and management status, number and size distribution of holdings, change in area over time, standing volume and growing stock, standing volume and mass of biomass, annual increment, fellings, and removals, 3) benefits and functions of the forests, and 4) conclusions. The main findings are that 2.06 billion hectares or about 50% of the world's total forests and wooded land are located in temperate zones. Almost 25% is in the USSR and almost 20% in North America. Forest covers nearly 39% of land area or 1.62 hectares/capita in temperate regions. Forest area, growing stock, and increment have continued to increase since the 1950s. there were 1.86 billion m3 overbark fellings in 1990 of which 40% was in North America; fellings are still less than net annual increment. The environmental and other nonwood goods and services of the forests are becoming increasingly important to society, and will receive emphasis in policy and planning for protection, water regulation, nature conservation, and recreation. Public attitudes have been changing. Conflicts do exist between, for instance, wood production and environmental protection. Almost all temperate zone countries have in common the continuing expansion of the forest resources and specifically nonwood functions. The next joint session of FAO European Forestry Commission and UN-ECE Timber Committee will consider the implications of the net productivity for the whole range of goods and services relative to the deterioration of an overmature forest.
POPULATION GEOGRAPHY. 1989 Jun-Dec; 11(1-2):86-96.This paper surveys the contributions of the International Geographic Union (IGU) and the International Cartographic Association (ICA) to the field of population studies over the past 3 decades. Reviewing the various focal themes of conferences sponsored by the organizations since the 1960s, the author examines the evolution of population studies in IGU and ICA. During the 1960s, IGU began holding symposia addressing the issue of population pressure on the physical and social resource in developing countries. However, it wasn't until 1972, at a meeting in Edmonton, Canada, when IGU first addressed the issue of migration. But since then, migration has remained on the the key concerns of IGU. In 1978, the union hosted a symposium on Population Redistribution in Africa -- the first in a series of conferences focusing on the issue of migration. As an outgrowth of migration, the IGU also began addressing the related issue of population education. The interest in migration has continued through the 1980s. In addition to studies of regional migration, the IGU has also focused on conceptual issues such as migrant labor, environmental concerns, women and migration, and urbanization. In 1984, IGU began cooperating with ICA in the areas of census cartography and population cartography. The author concludes his review of IGU and ICA activities by discussing the emerging trends in population studies. The author foresees a more refined study of migration and more sophisticated population mapping, the result of better study techniques and the use of computer technology.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. xxvi, 323 p. (ST/ESCAP/551.)The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific issues this 1987 supplement to the 1984 DIRECTORY OF POPULATION EXPERTS IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC. A complete re-survey of population experts was made since the publication of the 1984 directory in order to update addresses and to identify additional population experts. This volume is divided into 2 parts: first is an 18-page index listing experts by 37 fields of specialization, followed by 323 pages of experts' personal profiles. Index entries include an abbreviation of the country in which the expert is working and the page number of his/her personal profile. Profiles are organized alphabetically by surname. Personal data include date of birth, current address and telephone number, education, mother tongue, proficiency in other languages, areas of expertise, description, employer, responsibilities, employment record, previous consultancies, and important publications.
[Geography of population: an international perspective] La geographie de la population: une vue internationale.
Espace, Populations, Societes. 1984; 2:59-63.Population geographers throughout the world have been influenced by a series of factors, including the extraordinary diversity of patterns of demographic transition throughout the world. Although the classic model of transition associated with modernization facilitated understanding, especially in Western countries, there have been so many exceptions that the model has only a crude value. The same situation holds in relation to the transition in mobility, which has brought brusque and unexpected modifications in migration patterns. The process of population redistribution is having the effect of intensifying disparities of density and pressure and increasing spatial concentrations. Political changes in which states are playing an even more important role in demographic policy have been another influence on population geography. Direct or indirect, explicit or implicit policies of governments are increasingly shaping population growth and displacement, regardless of the type of government. National socioeconomic situations as well as populationsize and growth help determine interest in population. The growing quantity of available data, although variable in amount and quality from country to country, has also prompted geographic interest. It must be noted that many questions require other sources besides census data. The growing number of specializations within geography is reflected in development of population geography, which in England for example has different foundations and orientations toward mathematics, history, ecology, cartography, sociology, and other fields. The diffusion throughout the world of different forms of population geography has been very uneven. The development of an applied geography or geography relevant to development planning and public policy, and the growing realization that population systems cannot be dissociated from social, economic, and political systems are other trends. The Commission on Population Geography of the International Geographic Union has organized colloquiums for geographers of different national backgrounds and training to study theoretical, technical, and practical problems in population geography. 7 colloquia have been organized between 1980-84 on various themes. The Commission has published 2 books and edits a semiannual newsletter on population geography with the aim of functioning as an international tribunal for population geography. (summary in ENG)
Global distribution of schistosomiasis: CEGET/WHO Atlas. Distribution Mondiale de la schistosomiase: Atlas CEGET/OMS.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(2):186-99.Schistosomiasis, the most prevalent of the water-borne diseases, is endemic in 74 tropical developing countries and infects over 200 million persons in rural and agricultural areas. However, recent advances in diagnostic techniques, new antischistosomal drugs, and accumulated understanding of the epidemiology of the infection offer improved prospects for schistosomiasis control. Morever, adaptation of quantotative parasitologic techniques for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis will make more data available for use in national control programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has been instrumental in providing reliable reference material on the geographic distribution of schistosomiasis and, on the basis of a survey of Member States, collaborated with Centre d'etudes de geographic tropicale (CEGET), in the development of an Atlas. This volume consists of topographic relief maps that identify the presence of absence of schistosomiasis by village or locality. There are wide variations in the prevalence, intensity of infection, ans species of parasite according to ecologic differences, snail intermediate hosts, and occupational and cultural norms. The Atlas also highlights the relationship of water resource development projects to schistosomiasis endemicity. Attention to such data may lead to the selection of project areas known not to be endemic. More sophisticated geographic analyses based on land form, soil and geologic characteristics, ground water level, and agricultural land use have been used predictively in Japan. The Atlas is expected to serve as a reference point to evaluate the global progress in schistosomiasis control.