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  1. 1

    Laos: progress will be slow.

    Ramdoyal R

    World Health. 1982 Jun; 28-9.

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic, a country faced with the problem of ensuring an outlet to the sea, suffers from all the undesirable economic and social consequences which being a landlocked country entails. Foreign products which Laos needs will be bought at a high cost in time and in scarce foreign exchange, but without foreign exchange the country is unable to obtain what it needs for economic and social development. The local manufacture of many items that are important for the country's growth remains limited because its dependence on supplies from abroad has always retarded technical development. At this time the national economy is advancing too slowly in relation to its capacity and to domestic demand. A factor seriously affecting the capacity for development has been the protracted war in which Laos has been embroiled by its geographical position. Health services, particularly in rural areas, reflect this situation as do all the other essential services. Defective communication networks have contributed to the weakness of the health sector. For many years the country has been receiving assistance from the World Health Organization (WHO) tailored to its needs, but the insecurity created by the war has precluded penetration into the most remote and poorest areas. Currently, the low rate of graduation from secondary schools limits the recruitment of people to be trained for the many vacant posts in the health services. WHO has the technical capacity for helping Laos to speed up its health development process, but it must first overcome the most important hurdle by introducing a more efficient system of management and creating among the staff the necessary confidence and decision making ability that are required. WHO is now helping Laos to deal with the priority problems that have been identified, i.e., the most common and most serious diseases. Malaria has been brought under control in 2 of 13 provinces. A drinking water supply project is being financed, and an immunization campaign against the common diseases of childhood has been initiated. Health education is another problem area. In rural areas WHO is primarily concerned with a project for developing primary health care so that improved health services can be made available in the most remote regions.
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  2. 2

    Long-range global population projections, as assessed in 1980.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 1982; (14):17-30.

    UN medium range projections prepared in the 1980 assessment projected the population of individual countries up to the year 2025. The long range projections discussed here were prepared by projecting the population of 8 major world regions from 2025-2100. The purpose of the projection was to observe the implications of the changes from the 1978 assessment made in the 1980 medium range projections on the long range projections of the world's populations. As in previous projections, high, medium, and low variants were prepared in which fertility is assumed to be constant at the replacement level but at different times in the future. In addition, these projections contain 2 variants not previously prepared--namely, the growth and decline variants, in which the ultimate net reproduction rate is 1.05 and 0.95, respectively. In all the variants, expectation of life at birth is assumed to reach 75 years for males and 80 for females. According to the current medium variant projection, the earth's population will become stationary after 2095 at 10.2 billion persons, compared with a total of 10.5 billion projected in the 1978 assessment. The lower projection is largely attributable to a recent decline in the growth rate of several countries in South Asia which was greater than previously assumed. When the world population becomes stationary, both crude birth and death rates would be about 13/1000. In the decline variant, total population would peak at 7.7 billion in 2055, then decline gradually to 7.2 billion in 2100. The total population as projected by the growth variant would equal 14.9 billion in 2100 and would still be growing slowly. Between 1980 and 2050, 95% of the world's growth will occur in the currently less developed regions. Their share of total population will increase from 75-85% during that period. The age structure in all regions is expected to converge to 1 in which the median age is 39 years, the proportion both below age 15 and above age 64 is about 19% each, and the dependency ratio is about 60. A precise degree of accuracy cannot be specified, but the argument is made that the actual future population of the world is very likely to fall within the range of the projection variants and probably not far from the medium variant. (author's)
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  3. 3

    UNFPA allocations for contraceptives as of 31 December 1981 [tables]

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1982 Apr. 63 p.

    A series of 3 lengthy tables provide data as of December 1981 on: 1) UNFPA allocations for contraceptives from 1969-84, 2) distribution of contraceptives by type from 1969-77 to 1981 by regions within agencies, and 3) distribution of contraceptives by type from 1969-84 by regions within agencies. Data in the 1st table are presented for the periods 1969-77 and subsequent single years for individual countries within the regions Subsaharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East separately for condoms, pills, IUDs, injectables, spermicides, and others. As of 1984, it is estimated that the UNFPA will have provided 6,727,626,000 gross of condoms, the overwhelmining majority in Asia and the Pacific; 7,464,607,000 cycles of pills; 4,372,305,000 IUDs; and 2,696,937,000 doses of injectables, mostly in Asia and the Pacific. Cumulative country and regional totals are provided. The 2nd table provides information on distribution of contraceptives by project within regions for the period 1969-77 and subsequent single years through 1981 by the UNTCD, International Labour Organization (ILO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), UNFPA, non-governmental organizations, and UNICEF for condoms, pills, IUDs, injectables, spermicides, and others. The 3rd table follows the format of the 2nd but the initial period covered is 1969-81, with single year data provided for 1982-84 and cumulative totals for 1969-84.
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