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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Application opportunities of geographic information systems analysis to support achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in South Africa.

    Lilian RR; Grobbelaar CJ; Hurter T; McIntyre JA; Struthers HE; Peters RPH

    South African Medical Journal. 2017 Nov 27; 107(12):1065-1071.

    In an effort to achieve control of the HIV epidemic, 90-90-90 targets have been proposed whereby 90% of the HIV-infected population should know their status, 90% of those diagnosed should be receiving antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of those on treatment should be virologically suppressed. In this article we present approaches for using relatively simple geographic information systems (GIS) analyses of routinely available data to support HIV programme management towards achieving the 90-90-90 targets, with a focus on South Africa (SA) and other high-prevalence settings in low- and middle-income countries. We present programme-level GIS applications to map aggregated health data and individual-level applications to track distinct patients. We illustrate these applications using data from City of Johannesburg Region D, demonstrating that GIS has great potential to guide HIV programme operations and assist in achieving the 90-90-90 targets in SA.
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  2. 2

    A profile of child marriage in Africa.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, Data and Analytics Section, 2015. 8 p.

    This report provides an overview of key facts about child marriage in Africa. While rates of child marriage are slowly decreasing across the continent, the rate of progress combined with population growth means there will not be a substantial reduction in the number of child brides. If current trends continue, almost half of the world’s child brides in 2050 will be African.
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  3. 3


    Connor DH; Meyers WM; Gibson DW

    In: Simpson TW, Strickland GT, Mercer MA, ed. New developments in tropical medicine, II. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health [NCIH], 1983. 111-18.

    Onchocerciasis, a disease caused by the parasite onchocerca volvulus, is now recognized by the World Health Organization as one of the world's major public health problems. Until recently, few western physicians had heard of the disease and many thought of it as rare and unimportant, characterized by benign "parasite tumors" of the skin. Transmission of the parasite by the vector blackfly is limited by climate and habits of the fly to defined endemic regions in tropical Africa, North Yemen, southern Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Columbia, and Ecuador. An estimated 40 million people are infected with the parasite and all but 1 million fo these live in tropical Africa. The economic impact of the disease has been devastating. It can force communities away from adjacent fertile land, which reduces agricultural production. To confirm diagnosis of the disease, either microfilariae or adult worms must be detected and/or recovered from the patient and identified by their specific morphologic features. During the 1970s, a long-range program to control the transmission of O. volvulus was developed and is being implemented by the WHO, supported by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other agencies, known as the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP). The program's purpose is to reduce or arrest transmission by killing the vector blackfly. Breeding places along rivers and streams of savanna regions are being systematically sprayed. It is hoped that onchocerciasis will be reduced to a sufficiently low level so that it no longer is a public health problem or an obstacle to socioeconomic development. The adult worm lives an estimated 11-16 years and the gravid females continue to generate millions of microfilariae that live about 2 years. Without a long-term (e.g., 20 year) program, blackflies could reinvade the OCP area from other regions whici would resume the cycle from the reservoir of adults and microfilariae of O.volvulus still harbored by older people in the area.
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