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  1. 1
    070823

    Romania.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. v, 36 p. (Report)

    The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
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  2. 2
    066993

    Population policies and programmes: lessons learned from two decades of experience.

    Sadik N

    New York, New York, New York University Press, 1991. xxiv, 464 p.

    This publication contains an UNFPA assessment of the accomplishments of population activities over the last 20 years. The world's leading multilateral population agency, UNFPA decided to conduct the study in order to identify obstacles to such programs, acquire forward-looking strategies, and facilitate interagency cooperation. The 1st section examines 3 categories of population activities: 1) population data, policy, and research; 2) maternal and child health, and family planning; 3) and information, education, and communication. This section also recognized 9 key issues that affect the success of population programs: political commitment, national and international coordination, the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector, institutionalization, the role of women and gender considerations, research, training, monitoring and evaluation, and the mobilization of resources at the national and international level. The 2nd section of the publication discusses population policies and programs in the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean . Finally, the 3rd section provides and agenda for the future, discussing the significance of international efforts in the field of population, as well as pointing out the programmatic implications at the national and international levels. 2 annexes provide demographic and socioeconomic data for 142 countries, as well as the government perceptions of demographic characteristics for individual countries.
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  3. 3
    268443

    Report on the evaluation of SEN/77/P04: population/socio-spatial/regional planning (population/amenagement du territoire).

    Fabri MY; Pool DI; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. xiii, 34, [7] p.

    The Senegal population/socio-spatial/regional planning project illustrates a truly integrated approach to population and development planning. The evaluation Mission concluded overall that the project's achievements are positive. The project's main accomplishments have been the establishment of a sophisticated population data bank, the preparation of national and regional population projections, an analysis of migration movements, and the production of related maps and tables using primarily 2ndary data sources. The technical quality and detail of the work undertaken, as well as its potential usefulness, were high. However, the Mission also found that various constraints specific to this project have considerably limited its achievements. These include inadequately formulated project objectives and planned activities, poorly defined conceptual framework, low absorptive capacity of the implementing agency, and severe United Nations Fund for Population Activities budget reductions. The value of the work was found to be lessened because the data assembled have not yet been systematically integrated into other relevant data banks, properly disseminated or utilized. The Mission recommended measures which will help conserve the valuable data bank and other results of the project and will assist in the transfer to nationals of the knowledge and skills to update and utilize the data bank. Limited outside assistance--financial and technical--is needed for some of the recommended measures.
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  4. 4
    268442

    A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19, [9] p.

    The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
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  5. 5
    031969

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  6. 6
    031753

    [World population and development: an important change in perspective] Population mondiale et developpement: un important changement de perspective.

    Vallin J

    Problemes Economiques. 1984 Oct 24; (1895):26-32.

    The International Population Conference in Mexico City was much less controversial than the World Population Conference in Bucharest 10 years previously, in part because the message of Bucharest was widely accepted and in part because of changes that occurred in the demographic and economic situations in the succeeding decade. The UN medium population projection for 1985 has been proved quite accurate; it is not as alarming as the high projection but still represents a doubling of world population in less than 40 years. The control of fertility upon which the medium projection was predicated is well underway. The movement from high to low rates of fertility and mortality began in the 18th century in the industrial countries and lasted about 1 1/2 centuries during which the population surplus was dispersed throughout the world, especially in North and South America. The 2nd phase of movement from high to low rates currently underway in the developing countries has produced a far greater population increase. The proportion of the population in the developed areas of Europe, North America, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand will decline from about 1/3 of the 2.5 billion world population of 1950 to 1/4 of the 3.7 billion of 1985, to 1/5 of the 4.8 billion of 2000, and probably 1/7 of the 10 billion when world population stabilizes at the end of the next century. The growth rates of developing countries are not homogeneous; the populations of China and India have roughly doubled in the past 35 years while that of Latin America has multiplied by 2 1/2. The population of Africa more than doubled in 35 years and will almost triple by 2025. The number of countries with over 50 million inhabitants, 9 in 1950, will increase from 19 in 1985 to 32 in 2025. The process of urbanization is almost complete in the industrialized countries, with about 75% of the population urban in 1985, but urban populations will continue to grow rapidly in the developing countries as rural migration is added to natural increase. The number of cities with 10 million inhabitants has increased from 2 to 13 between 1950 and 1985, and is expected to reach 25 by 2000, with Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Shanghai the world's largest cities. The peak rate of world population growth was reached in the 1960s, with annual increases of 2.4%. In 1980-85 in the developed and developing worlds respectively the rates of population growth were .7% and 2.0%/year; total fertility rates were 2.05 and 4.2, and the life expectancies at birth were 72.4 and 57.0. Considerable variations occurred in individual countries. Annual rates of growth in 1980-85 were 2.4% in Latin America, 3.0% in Africa, 2.2% in South Asia and 1.2% in East Asia. Today only Iran among high fertility countries pursues a pronatalist policy. Since Bucharest, it has become evident to developing and developed countries alike that population control and economic development must go hand in hand.
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  7. 7
    031976

    Ghana: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)

    This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
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  8. 8
    030796

    Burma: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
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  9. 9
    021441
    Peer Reviewed

    A perspective on long-term population growth.

    Demeny PG

    Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):103-26.

    This paper presents some of the results of projections prepared by the World Bank in 1983 for all the world's countries. The projections (presented against a background of recent demographic trends as estimated by the United Nations) trace the approach of each individual country to a stationary state. Implications of the underlying fertility and mortality assumptions are shown mainly in terms of time trends of total population to the year 2100, annual rates of growth, and absolute annual increments. These indices are shown for the largest individual countries, for world regions, and for country groupings according to economic criteria. The detailed predictive performance of such projections is likely to be poor but the projections indicate orders of magnitude characterizing certain aggregate demographic phenomena whose occurrence is highly probable and set clearly interpretable reference points useful in discussing contemporary issues of policy. (author's)
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  10. 10
    198649

    International Conference on Population, 1984. Population distribution, migration and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Hammamet (Tunisia), 21-25 March 1983

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1984. vi, 505 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.A/89)

    These are the proceedings of one of the four expert groups convened in preparation for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984. The aim of the expert groups was to examine critical, high-priority population issues and to make recommendations for revisions to the World Population Plan of Action. The present publication concerns the relationships among population distribution, migration, and development. It contains a report of the discussions and a list of recommendations concerning population distribution and internal migration, international migration, and the promotion of knowledge and policies. The report also includes a selection of background papers. These papers include a review of population distribution, migration, and development in relation to the World Population Plan of Action; a review of technical cooperation in this area; and a description of United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance in the field of migration and population distribution.
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  11. 11
    260738

    Final report.

    Post-World Population Conference Consultation for the Economic Commission for Western Asia (1975: Doha)

    Report prepared for UNFPA/UN Interregional Consultative Group of Experts on the World Population Plan of Action, Geneva, 1975. 25 p

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  12. 12
    024950

    Country profile: Sierra Leone.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation. Africa Region; Planned Parenthood Federation of Sierra Leone

    [Nairobi, Kenya], International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, [1983]. 28 p.

    This profile of Sierra Leone discusses the following: geographical features; neighboring countries; ethnic and racial groups and religion; systems of government; population, namely, size, distribution, age/sex distribution, and women of reproductive age; socioeconomic conditions -- agriculture, industry, exports, imports, employment, education, health, and social welfare; family planning/population -- government policies, programs, Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL), nongovernment organizations and voluntary agencies, private organizations, sources of funding, and future trends of policies and programs; and the history, constitution, and structure and administration of the PPASL. According to the 1974 census, the population of Sierra Leone totaled 2,735,159. In 1980 it was estimated to have grown to 3,474,000. With an average annual growth rate of about 2.7%, it is expected to reach 6 million in 2000 and to have doubled in 27 years. Sierra Leone has a population density of 48 people/sq km. In 1974, 27.5% of the population lived in urban centers with 47% living in Freetown alone. The indigenous population includes 18 major ethnic groups; the Temne and Mende are the largest of these. The percentage of nonnationals increased from 2.7% in 1963 to 2.9% in 1974 and includes nationals mainly from the West African subregion with a sprinkling of British, Lebanese, Americans, Indians, and others. In 1974 the sex ratio was 98.8 males/100 females. In 1981 it was estimated that 41% of the total population was under age 15 and 5% over age 65, making the dependency burden very high. Agriculture is now the main focus of the government's development policy. Minerals are an important source of foreign exchange. It was estimated in 1980 that the total economically active population would reach 1.2 million, of whom the majority would be employed in agriculture. Women made up approximately 1/3 of the economically active population in 1970. The adult literacy rate recently has been estimated at 12% of the population. The government allows the PPASL to freely operate in the country, but it has not as yet declared a population policy. In 1973 the government did recognize the effects of rapid population growth on the nation's socioeconomic development. As a pioneering organization in family planning, the PPASL has made considerable effort in promoting the concept of responsible parenthood. Its motivational programs are geared towards informing and educating the public on the need for having only those children whom individuals and couples can adequately provide for in terms of health, nutrition, education, clothing, and all other basic necessities. Family planning services are provided to meet the demand thus created to enable families and individuals to exercise free and informed choice for spacing or limiting of children. Between 1971 and 1983 the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided financial assistance to Sierra Leone for population activities in the amount of US$2,659,382.
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