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  1. 1

    Deaths and disease burden by cause: global burden of disease estimates for 2001 by World Bank country groups. Revised.

    Mathers CD; Lopez A; Stein C; Fat DM; Rao C

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, Disease Control Priorities Project, 2005 Jan. [212] p. (Disease Control Priorities Project Working Paper No. 18)

    The World Health Organization has undertaken a new assessment of the GBD for the year 2000 and subsequent years. The three goals articulated for the GBD 1990 (8) remain central: to decouple epidemiological assessment of the magnitude of health problems from advocacy by interest groups of particular health policies or interventions; to include in international health policy debates information on non-fatal health outcomes along with information on mortality; and to undertake the quantification of health problems in time-based units that can also be used in economic appraisal. The specific objectives for GBD 2000 are similar to the original objectives: to quantify the burden of premature mortality and disability by age, sex, and region for 135 major causes or groups of causes; to develop internally consistent estimates of the incidence, prevalence, duration, and case-fatality for over 500 sequelae resulting from the above causes; to describe and value the health states associated with these sequelaeof diseases and injuries; to analyze the contribution to this burden of major physiological, behavioral, and social risk factors by age, sex and region; to develop alternative projection scenarios of mortality and non-fatal health outcomes over the next 30 years, disaggregated by cause, age, sex and region. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    An overview of the policies and management of the HIV / AIDS epidemic in Thailand and Singapore.

    Panadam HR

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1992. viii, 138 p. (Order No. 1350571)

    AIDS/HIV infection is pandemic. In Singapore and Thailand, however, the incidence of HIV infection has grown at an especially alarming rate due to the countries' status of being internationally recognized tourist destinations and the high prevalence of prostitution. The demographics, socioeconomics, health care systems, and geographical location also influence the course of the disease in the countries. This paper reviews the policies, management, current determinants, and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS in Singapore and Thailand. Projections for the future and prospects for prevention and control are offered. Different sections define AIDS; give the historical background of AIDS and origin of the virus; describe modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS and geographic patterns of AIDS; discuss the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Asia, the management of HIV/AIDS, the social impact of HIV/AIDS, future trends and projections of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and effective policies and strategies in the prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mortality and morbidity projections and the potential to manage the epidemic seem particularly grim for Thailand, although Singapore's regimental and authoritarian approach may prove more promising. Policy makers in these countries must get moving to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The possibility of involving the World Health organization for technical assistance should be considered.
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  3. 3


    Connor DH; Meyers WM; Gibson DW

    In: Simpson TW, Strickland GT, Mercer MA, ed. New developments in tropical medicine, II. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health [NCIH], 1983. 111-18.

    Onchocerciasis, a disease caused by the parasite onchocerca volvulus, is now recognized by the World Health Organization as one of the world's major public health problems. Until recently, few western physicians had heard of the disease and many thought of it as rare and unimportant, characterized by benign "parasite tumors" of the skin. Transmission of the parasite by the vector blackfly is limited by climate and habits of the fly to defined endemic regions in tropical Africa, North Yemen, southern Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Columbia, and Ecuador. An estimated 40 million people are infected with the parasite and all but 1 million fo these live in tropical Africa. The economic impact of the disease has been devastating. It can force communities away from adjacent fertile land, which reduces agricultural production. To confirm diagnosis of the disease, either microfilariae or adult worms must be detected and/or recovered from the patient and identified by their specific morphologic features. During the 1970s, a long-range program to control the transmission of O. volvulus was developed and is being implemented by the WHO, supported by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other agencies, known as the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP). The program's purpose is to reduce or arrest transmission by killing the vector blackfly. Breeding places along rivers and streams of savanna regions are being systematically sprayed. It is hoped that onchocerciasis will be reduced to a sufficiently low level so that it no longer is a public health problem or an obstacle to socioeconomic development. The adult worm lives an estimated 11-16 years and the gravid females continue to generate millions of microfilariae that live about 2 years. Without a long-term (e.g., 20 year) program, blackflies could reinvade the OCP area from other regions whici would resume the cycle from the reservoir of adults and microfilariae of O.volvulus still harbored by older people in the area.
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  4. 4

    Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

    Assaad F

    REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):452-9.

    This summary of the worldwide impact of measles discusses epidemiology, reported incidence, clinical severity, community attitudes toward measles, and the impact of immunization programs on measles. Measles, 1 of the most ubiquitous and persistent of human viruses, occurs regularly everywhere in the world except in very remote and isolated areas. Strains of measles virus from different counties are indistinguishable, and serum antibodies from diverse population have identical specificity. Yet, the epidemic pattern, average age at infection, and mortality vary considerably from 1 area to another and provide a contrasting picture between the developing and the developed countries. In the populous areas of the world, measles causes epidemics every 2-5 years, but in the rapidly expanding urban conglomerations in the developing world, the continuous immigration from the rural population provides a constant influx of susceptible individuals and, in turn, a sustained occurrence of measles and unclear epidemic curves. In the economically advanced nations, measles epidemics are closely tied to the school year, building up to a peak in the late spring and ceasing abruptly after the summer recess begins. Maternal antibody usually confers protection against measles to infants during the 1st few months of life. The total number of cases of measles reported to WHO for 1980 is 2.9 million. Considering that in the developing world alone almost 100 million infants are born yearly, that less than 20% of them are immunized against measles, and that various studies indicate that almost all nonimmunized children get measles, less than 3 million cases of measles in 1980 is a gross underestimate. There was adecrease in the global number of reported cases of measles during the 1979-80 period due primarily to the reduction in the number of cases in the African continent and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. It is premature to conclude that such a reported decline is real and that it reflects the beginning of a longterm trend. The contrast between the developed and the developing worlds is most marked in relation to the severity and outcome of measles. Case fatality rates of more than 20% have been reported from West Africa. It has been estimated that 900,000 deaths occur yearly in the developing world because of measles, but data available to WHO indicate that the global case fatality rate in the developing world approaches 2% (in contrast to 2/10,000 cases in the US), and the actal mortality may be greater than 1.5 million deaths per year. The advent of WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization has brought about an awareness of the measles problem. Whenever and wherever measles vaccine has been used effectively on a large scale, a marked reduction in the number of cases has been recorded.
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