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  1. 1
    053132

    Teenage fertility in developing countries.

    Pillai VK

    STUDIES IN COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. 1988 Winter; 13(4):3-14.

    Data were taken from "A Compilation of Age Specific Fertility Rates for Developing Countries" (US Bureau of Census, 1979) to compile a detailed profile of teenage fertility in developing countries as a basis for designing policies at an international level. Of the 127 countries for which data were available, 65 countries which had data for circa 1965 and 1970 were considered for this analysis. In 1960, the average number of births/1000 women aged 15-19 years was 116; in 1965 the average was 106. There was considerable variation in teenage fertility rates among countries in the developing world. The coefficients of variation of the number of births/1000 women aged 15-19 years were 47% in 1960 and approximately 44% in 1965. Both the Asian and African regions contained countries with very low teenage fertility rates, 31/1000 women aged 15-19 years in 1960. The lowest 1960 rate for Latin American countries was 50/1000. The largest proportion of all births in 1960 occurred in Latin America, 38%. The countries of Oceania contributed the smallest, 7.2% of the total teen births in 1960. Teenage fertility rates declined in all regions during 1960-65. The analysis of teen fertility rates of developing countries reveals several problematical aspects which have implications for policy formulation, including: the teen fertility rates of developing countries are very high relative to developed nations; and despite the fact that Africa and Latin America have higher teen fertility levels compared to the rest of the developing world, few international agencies have targeted Africa and Latin America as priorities for birth control activities.
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  2. 2
    041773

    New Zealand.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Mar; 1-8.

    New Zealand, located in the southwest Pacific, has a population of more than 3 million. Although populated for at least 1000 years before the arrival of the Europeans, New Zealand achieved full internal and external autonomy in 1947. Its parliamentary system of government is patterned closely on the United Kingdom. There is a 20-member cabinet led by the prime minister which has executive authority. There are 4 major political parties in New Zealand. While New Zealand is of the world's most efficient producers of economic products, the current government has undertaken an effort to reverse New Zealand economic decline by instituting a major economic reform program. Defense has traditionally occupied a very small place in the budget in New Zealand. Until recently, its defense policy has developed around the ANZUS (Australia, New Zealand, United States) mutual defense treaty. They have also cooperated with the South Pacific and Southest Asian countries. New Zealand's foreign policy targets mainly the developed democratic countries and Southeast Asia. New Zealand and Australia have both political and economic relationships. Among other things, New Zealand has helped Asian countries with technical assistance. US Navy vessels have access to New Zealand ports but since July 1984, there have been certain restrictions attached to port use. Largely these restrictions are meant to ban entry to nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed warships. New Zealand is very committed to developing more extensively the political, economic, and social ties among the members of ANZUS. Information on travel, principal US officials, principal government officials, government, and economy are also included.
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  3. 3
    035836

    Fiji.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Nov; 1-4.

    Fiji is a group of volcanic islands located in the South Pacific. Because of the rough terrain in its center, that area is sparsely populated; most of Fiji's population live on the island coasts. Almost all indigenous Fijians are Christians and English is the official language. In 1970 Fiji became a fully sovereign and independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The British monarch appoints the governor general who in turn appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in House of Representatives. The transition to independence for Fijians was achieved in a peaceful fashion. While there are some racial tensions between the Indo-Fijians and the indigenous Fijians, the 2 major political parties and the various leaders have succeeded in maintaining order. The government of Fiji, since attaining independence, has worked hard toward economic and social progress and there have been great strides made in education, health, agriculture, and nutrition. The thrust of Fiji's economy is sugar and the 2nd component is tourism. Fiji does import a wide variety of goods but industrial development is proceeding well. Fiji encourages local and foreign investment in the hopes of promoting development and providing industrial jobs. Regional cooperation is the main element in Fiji foreign policy they joined the UN in 1970. Full diplomatic relations exist between the US and Fiji and US and Fijian officials have exchanged visits. In 1985 the US provided $1.5 million in disaster relief funds to Fiji; there is expedcted to be a bilateral aid agreement between the 2 countries in 1986. Travel notes, government and US officials, and further information are included.
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  4. 4
    033687

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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  5. 5
    039113

    Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

    Assaad F

    REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):452-9.

    This summary of the worldwide impact of measles discusses epidemiology, reported incidence, clinical severity, community attitudes toward measles, and the impact of immunization programs on measles. Measles, 1 of the most ubiquitous and persistent of human viruses, occurs regularly everywhere in the world except in very remote and isolated areas. Strains of measles virus from different counties are indistinguishable, and serum antibodies from diverse population have identical specificity. Yet, the epidemic pattern, average age at infection, and mortality vary considerably from 1 area to another and provide a contrasting picture between the developing and the developed countries. In the populous areas of the world, measles causes epidemics every 2-5 years, but in the rapidly expanding urban conglomerations in the developing world, the continuous immigration from the rural population provides a constant influx of susceptible individuals and, in turn, a sustained occurrence of measles and unclear epidemic curves. In the economically advanced nations, measles epidemics are closely tied to the school year, building up to a peak in the late spring and ceasing abruptly after the summer recess begins. Maternal antibody usually confers protection against measles to infants during the 1st few months of life. The total number of cases of measles reported to WHO for 1980 is 2.9 million. Considering that in the developing world alone almost 100 million infants are born yearly, that less than 20% of them are immunized against measles, and that various studies indicate that almost all nonimmunized children get measles, less than 3 million cases of measles in 1980 is a gross underestimate. There was adecrease in the global number of reported cases of measles during the 1979-80 period due primarily to the reduction in the number of cases in the African continent and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. It is premature to conclude that such a reported decline is real and that it reflects the beginning of a longterm trend. The contrast between the developed and the developing worlds is most marked in relation to the severity and outcome of measles. Case fatality rates of more than 20% have been reported from West Africa. It has been estimated that 900,000 deaths occur yearly in the developing world because of measles, but data available to WHO indicate that the global case fatality rate in the developing world approaches 2% (in contrast to 2/10,000 cases in the US), and the actal mortality may be greater than 1.5 million deaths per year. The advent of WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization has brought about an awareness of the measles problem. Whenever and wherever measles vaccine has been used effectively on a large scale, a marked reduction in the number of cases has been recorded.
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