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  1. 1

    The state of food and agriculture, 2013. Food systems for better nutrition.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 2013. [114] p.

    Malnutrition in all its forms imposes unacceptably high costs on society in human and economic terms. Addressing malnutrition requires a multisectoral approach that includes complementary interventions in food systems, public health and education. Within a multisectoral approach, food systems offer many opportunities for interventions leading to improved diets and better nutrition. Agricultural production and productivity growth remain essential for better nutrition, but more can be done. Both traditional and modern supply chains offer risks and opportunities for achieving better nutrition and more sustainable food systems. Consumers ultimately determine what they eat and therefore what the food system produces. Better governance of food systems at all levels, facilitated by high-level political support, is needed to build a common vision, to support evidence-based policies, and to promote effective coordination and collaboration through integrated, multisectoral action. (Excerpts)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    [Undernutrition in humanitarian crises] Underernaering ved humanitaere kriser.

    Skau JK; Olsen M; Friis H; Michaelsen KF

    Ugeskrift For Laeger. 2010 Jan 11; 172(2):117-20.

    Undernutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in emergencies. The response depends on the extent and type of undernutrition in the affected population. Nutritional status is assessed by weight-for-height, mid-upper arm circumference and micronutrient deficiencies. Food aid is distributed in general or selective feeding programmes. Promotion of breastfeeding has been found to be one of the most efficient strategies to prevent undernutrition. There is a lack of evidence to support the optimal composition of food aid products, but there is an increasing focus on the importance of research in this field.
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  3. 3

    The state of food and agriculture, 2010-11. Women in agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Economic and Social Development Department

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 2011. [160] p.

    This edition of The State of Food and Agriculture addresses Women in agriculture: closing the gender gap for development. The agriculture sector is underperforming in many developing countries, and one of the key reasons is that women do not have equal access to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. This report clearly confirms that the Millennium Development Goals on gender equality (MDG 3) and poverty and food security (MDG 1) are mutually reinforcing. We must promote gender equality and empower women in agriculture to win, sustainably, the fight against hunger and extreme poverty. I firmly believe that achieving MDG 3 can help us achieve MDG 1. (Excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Are the goals set by the Millennium Declaration and the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development within reach by 2015?

    Concepcion MB

    Asia Pacific Population Journal. 2008 Aug; 23(2):3-9.

    This article discusses the likelihood of countries in Asia and the Pacific in reaching their 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). It touches on malnourishment, the reduction of child mortality, and the improvement of maternal health and stresses that the benefits of development must serve everyone, and not just favor the wealthy.
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  5. 5

    Targeting IDPS with food aid: WFP assistance in northern Uganda.

    Kashyap P; Kaijuka BK; Mabweijano E

    Health Policy and Development. 2004 Aug; 2(2):96-99.

    The World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations (UN) agency responding to humanitarian emergencies by delivering food aid to vulnerable populations worldwide. The protracted insurgency in northern Uganda resulted in the displacement of up to 1,619,807 people, largely women and children. The humanitarian situation among displaced persons in northern and eastern Uganda led to diminished coping abilities and increased food aid needs. Access to food through productive means varies but, on average, households can only access about 0.5 - 0.75 acres of land. Recent nutrition and health assessments conducted in Pader District, in Feb 2004 and in Gulu District, in June 2004, highlight high mortality rates of more than 1 death/10,000 people/day. While Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) rates appear to fall within the normal range expected within African populations (<5% GAM), high mortality rates consistently highlight the severity of the health situation in the camps. The WFP Uganda Country Office currently implements a Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO) and a Country Programme (CP). The PRRO targets Internally Displaced Persons in Northern Uganda through General Food Distribution (GFD) activities, school children, HIV/AIDS infected and affected households and other vulnerable groups. In partnership with the Government of Uganda (GOU), sister UN agencies, international and national NGOs and Community Based Organisations, WFP currently assists the 1,619,807 Internally Displaced Persons, (IDPs), including 178,741 school children in the Gulu and Kitgum, 19,900 people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS in Gulu and Kitgum and more than 750 food insecure persons involved in asset creation. Whilst WFP and other humanitarian actors continue to provide relief support to the displaced communities of northern Uganda, it is clear that without increased security the crisis will continue. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Mainstreaming nutrition to improve development outcomes.

    Swaminathan MS

    Contact. 2005 Jan; (179):40-42.

    In our world today, the statistics on hunger continue to rise alarmingly despite general economic progress and technological advancement. The quality of peace and true democratic value and the realization of human rights remain stubborn challenges facing civilization in the twenty-first century. Both developed and developing countries have missed some crucial links that might have ensured sustainable development and a more promising 'peace' scenario today. In its haste, the global society has overlooked its rich heritage of cultural, moral, and ethical values as well as its basic respect for human life and promotion of human dignity, and has sadly discarded its general code of ethics and spirituality. In other words, the focus of the world has been mainly uni-dimensional on economic success and political power. The recently concluded summits- World Food Summit in Rome and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg-have brought home the lack of political will and consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is a need for a consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is need for a larger ethical and moral movement beyond politics and the onus is on civil society to take the lead. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Women are the fabric: reproductive health for communities in crisis.

    Del Vecchio D

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. [16] p.

    Even in times of peace, it is usually women who look after children, the sick, the injured and the elderly. When emergencies strike, this burden of care can multiply. In many cases, women become the sole providers and caretakers for their households, and sometimes the families of others -- especially when men have been killed, injured or must leave their communities to fight or rebuild. During crisis and in refugee situations, women and girls become the ultimate humanitarian workers. They obtain food and fuel for their families, even when it is unsafe to do so. They are responsible for water collection, even when water systems have been destroyed and alternate sources are far away. They help to organize or rebuild schools. They protect the vulnerable and care for sick and disabled family members and neighbours. Women are also likely to take on additional tasks, including construction and other physical labour, and activities to generate income for their families. In many conflict zones, women's actions also help to bring about and maintain peace. Women care for orphaned children who might otherwise become combatants. They organize grass-roots campaigns, sometimes across borders, to call for an end to fighting. When the situation stabilizes, women work together to mend their torn communities. They help rebuild, restore traditions and customs, and repair relationships -- all while providing care for the next generation. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.

    Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    School feeding, school reform, and food security: Connecting the dots.

    Levinger B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(2 Suppl 2):S170-S178.

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. (author's)
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    International Workshop on Food Aid: Contributions and Risks to Sustainable Food Security -- Berlin Statement.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25(1):89-92.

    For decades, food aid has been a contentious instrument for addressing hunger and food insecurity. The workshop carefully considered the pros and cons of food aid on the basis of past and current evidence, including practitioners' experiences. In particular, the workshop re-visited food aid in view of the perspectives of the ongoing WTO trade negotiations, the experience gained with the Food Aid Convention, the initiatives related to the human right to adequate food resulting from the World Food Summit, and the challenges of health crises, i.e. HIV/AIDS. The "Statement" results from an open and participatory process of working groups, and from more comprehensive plenary presentations by main actors in food aid (recipient governments, bilateral and multilateral donors, international agencies, NGOs). While reflecting a fair amount of consensus, the individual workshop participants and delegates cannot be held responsible for the "Statement". It is meant to serve stimulation of further discussion for innovation and improvement of key aspects of food aid for sustainable food security. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Moving up the food chain: lessons from gender mainstreaming at the World Food Programme. A study by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

    Donegan L

    New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Aug. 55 p.

    The Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children has been partnering with UNHCR on the global rollout of UNHCR's Age, Gender and Diversity Mainstreaming initiative. As part of this partnership, the Women's Commission has undertaken a research project on the World Food Programme's (WFP) gender mainstreaming efforts to assess what UNHCR can learn from another UN organization and what WFP could learn from UNHCR's own mainstreaming efforts. The research is a "desk study" based on a review of available resource materials, those publicly available on the WFP Web site, those non-public documents secured directly through WFP and through direct contact with the gender unit at WFP headquarters in Rome. This paper, based on the research and findings, considers how WFP mainstreams gender and offers recommendations on enhancing mainstreaming efforts by WFP and UNHCR in the context of food security and displacement. It provides an overview of WFP's age and gender mainstreaming policies and highlights organizational efforts to implement those policies. The study notes areas of progress and limitations of WFP's mainstreaming efforts in relation to food assistance and food security for displaced populations. It also seeks to ascertain how those efforts complement and reinforce UNHCR's age and gender mainstreaming efforts. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of health, nutrition and food security programmes in a complex emergency: the case of Congo as an example of a chronic post-conflict situation.

    Rossi L; Hoerz T; Thouvenot V; Pastore G; Michael M

    Public Health Nutrition. 2006 Aug; 9(5):551-556.

    The objective was to describe the case of Congo as an example of the assessment and appropriateness of donor operational and sectoral strategies in a complex emergency. The paper reports the findings of an external evaluation of operations financed by the European Commission Humanitarian Office in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The Congolese health system is suffering from severe deterioration. What is functioning in the public health context is donor-dependent with high costs and limited coverage. Despite a relatively favourable agro-climatic situation, food shortage and famine severely affect the nutritional status of large population groups. In this context, humanitarian programmes have generally improved access to health care and the nutritional status of beneficiaries. The reduction of malnutrition in project areas is often demonstrated even though the context did not permit consolidation of these results. Malnutrition continues to claim a massive cost of lives owing to the effect of widespread food insecurity that follows a circular cause-and-effect pattern of very low food production and extreme poverty. The current context in DRC does not correspond yet to 'post-crisis': neither at population level with regard to indicators of poverty, malnutrition, disease and death, nor at institutional level, with regard to state support to institutions. In these situations, the international community is often called upon to replace the state as service provider. Integrated humanitarian actions should be the future of relief projects in DRC. Health, nutrition and food security components should be considered a standard public health intervention strategy representing the most sensible approach to address the needs of the affected population. (author's)
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  13. 13

    Realizing the right to adequate food and achieving the Millennium Development Goals challenges facing the nutrition community.

    SCN News. 2006; (31):47-48.

    An SCN workshop addressing the realization of the right to adequate food and achieving the MDGs was held during the International Union of Nutritional Sciences' 18th International Congress of Nutrition in Durban, South Africa, September 2005. The meeting was jointly chaired by former SCN Chair, Dr Namanga Ngongi, and Professor Arne Oshaug of Akerhus College in Oslo, Norway. Six presentations were organized into three blocks related to: realizing the human right to adequate food (HRAF); national nutrition plans and poverty reduction programmes; and human-rights based nutrition capacity building. Some 70 participants took part in the four hour workshop. The lessons learnt from the SCN country case studies on integrating human rights into national approaches-- prepared for the SCN 32nd Session, Brasilia, March 2005--were presented by Roger Shrimpton. The case studies were developed in a participatory fashion, with country teams facilitated by SCN consultants. Workshops were held in Angola, Bolivia, Brazil and Mozambique to facilitate the understanding of nutrition causality and the right to adequate food, in order to strengthen national development plans for poverty reduction and realize the HRAF. In all countries there was a lack of common understanding among development actors about the programme components needed to ensure both food and nutrition security. Recommendations included the development of a food and nutrition policy framework to help define the interventions that will enhance the realization of the HRAF, together with a strategy to communicate a common vision among the UN agencies on how to promote the realization of HRAF and the right to be free from hunger and malnutrition. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Population, development and food security: an unresolved challenge for the twenty-first century.

    Villarreal M; Stloukal L

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):215-246.

    Since the Rome Population Conference the perceptions of the relationship between population dynamics and food security have undergone significant changes, ranging from fear of unyielding famines caused by explosive population growth to strong confidence in the capacity of the world to stand up to the challenge of growth. Many novel factors, unpredictable at the time, radically changed the scene throughout the half century. Unprecedented population growth happened during times of growing incomes and soaring agricultural production. Emerging actors such as the international agricultural research system played an important role, while emerging factors such as the AIDS epidemic have changed the parameters of the equation. With a world population that will significantly increase in the twenty first century, and that will, for the first time in history, be more urban than rural, not only will the total demand for food be greater than it has ever been, but the nature of that demand will be different. In many countries, changes have been taking place in dietary habits, as well as in methods of food production, processing and marketing, while international trade in raw commodities and processed foods has also grown substantially. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Chiapas women invest in the future.

    Henriquez Tobar E

    New Courier. 2005 May; 47-49.

    Responsible for half the world's food production, women play a key role in sustainable food security, particularly in developing countries. Yet they have considerably less access to land and investment funds than men. That is why microcredit, celebrated by an International Year in 2005, often seems like the only solution to break poverty's vicious circle. An example: In the province of Chiapas (Mexico) women are taking advantage of both loans and literacy classes, provided by a programme UNESCO supports. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical Cooperation.

    Gross R

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11 Suppl:S341-S347.

    Poverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic needs; (ii) financial and other means of poor individuals and groups; and (iii) the physical, intellectual, social, and cultural status and position of poor individuals and groups. Following this model, the severity of poverty is the collective gap between the availability of the essential resources (i) and the individual ability to meet basic needs (ii) + (iii). Basic needs are not covered if individuals or groups are not able to develop themselves physically, intellectually, and/or socially according to their genetic potentials. As a result, growth retardation of children (‘stunting’), who are biologically and socially the most vulnerable individuals of the society, is a valid cultural independent indicator for poverty. One form of poverty is food and nutrition insecurity. Food security is achieved if adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, sociocultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and happy life. Food and nutrition programmes have four dimensions: (i) categorical; (ii) socio-organizational; (iii) managerial; and (iv) situationrelated dimensions. As shown in three examples of Indonesian–German programmes, despite the complexity of poverty and food and nutrition security, with adequate targeting of the most vulnerable population, adequate identification of problems for a proper selection of interventions and frequent evaluation, reduction of poverty and food insecurity can be achieved. (author's)
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  17. 17

    Genetic resources, international organizations, and rice varietal improvement.

    Evenson RE; Gollin D

    New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1994 Jul. 38 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 713)

    This paper examines the economic role of three programs of the International Rice Research Institute designed to achieve genetic improvement in rice. These programs are the international genetic resource collection (IRGC), the international plan breeding program (IRPB), and the international network for the genetic evaluation of rice (INGER a system of "nurseries" in which varieties and advanced lines are tested in national programs. All of these programs are designed to contribute to rice genetic improvement by collaborating with counterpart national rice research programs. A genealogical analysis of 1709 rice varieties, constituting more than 90 percent of all improved rice varieties from the 1965 - 1991 period in tropical and subtropical countries, was undertaken. All ancestors of these varieties were traced back to the original "landrace" genetic resources on which they were based. This analysis showed a very high degree of international exchange of genetic materials. Fewer than 8 percent of these improved varieties were developed entirely from national genetic resources. More than two-thirds utilized genetic resources made available by the IRPB and IRGC programs. Most of these were transferred through INGER. A statistical analysis of varietal production showed that the IRGC and IRPB programs stimulated increased national use of the INGER nurseries. (National decisions regarding the number of national nurseries were treated as endogenous choices). The IRPB and the INGER programs, as well as national plant breeding programs, contributed to varietal production. Coefficient estimates indicated that the INGER system facilitated a 20 to 25 percent expansion of varietal production by making genetic materials readily available to large numbers of national plant breeding programs through the 900 to 1000 nurseries managed by INGER each year. The implied economic value of additional accessions to the genetic resource collections (IRGC national collections) was high and a strong economic justification for further collection, cataloging and preservation of these genetic resources was implied. (author's)
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  18. 18

    FAO sees decline in 'undernutrition', but the number of hungry continues to grow - Food and Agriculture Organization.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23:[8] p..

    For the first time in 40 years a decline in the incidence of undernutrition in the developing world has been detected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Rapid population growth, however, has pushed the number of hungry people slightly upwards, according to FAO's Fifth World Food Survey, published in December. "There is evidence of a turn in the tide', FAO Director-General Edouard Saouma states in the foreword to the Survey. But he cautions that there are no grounds for complacency. "As we have seen from the current African food crisis, widespread malnutrition can all too quickly turn into actual famine and starvation'. The Survey provides both high and low estimates of the undernourished, which reflect two interpretations of the body's energy requirements. According to lower estimates, at least 335 million people in the developing market economies were undernourished in 1979-1981, some 10 million more than a decade before. However, the proportion of people suffering from hunger dropped from 19 to 15 per cent of the total population. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Emergency needs total $1 billion; resolve to solve African crisis must not waver, Secretary-General says - Javier Perez de Cuellar.

    UN Chronicle. 1986 Feb; 23:[3] p..

    A "very cautious and conditional expression of hope" was delivered by Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar on 17 December 1985 to an informal meeting of Member States on the African emergency situation. Thanks to the generous international response and to rain which promised better harvests, he said, emergency needs would be down significantly in 1986 but still amount to nearly $1 billion. However, as the situation improved and news of the famine "faded from the front pages", the resolve of the international community to respond adequately might weaken. "We cannot let that happen", said the Secretary-General. "The momentum that has been generated this year must be maintained." The drought highlighted the seriousness of Africa's development crisis, he said, which must be addressed "with the same sense of urgency and in the same concerted and sustained manner which characterized the response to the drought". (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Crisis in Africa - perspective.

    UN Chronicle. 1984 Mar; 21:[36] p..

    Africa, the Assembly pointed out, contains three quarters of the countries designated as "least developed" and 50 per cent of the world's land-locked nations. There vulnerable States suffer particularly from the effects of the crises, which touch all sectors of the economy--especially food production and agriculture, the backbone of these primarily rural societies. Drought has swept through the savannas, deserts and coastlines of all parts of Africa. Food shortages are rampant throughout at least half of all African countries, affecting millions of Africans. Hundreds of thousands of cattle have died from lack of feed and epidemics of cattle plague. Rivers and streams have vanished and wells have dried up. At least 150 million persons are faced with starvation in the 24 most seriously affected countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Somalia, Swaziland, Togo, United Republic of Tanzania, Upper Volta, Zambia and Zimbabwe. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Africa's suffering "unacceptable" Secretary-General declares - Javier Perez de Cuellar.

    UN Chronicle. 1984 Jul; 21:[2] p..

    In a speech on 7 September to the annual conference of the Department of Public Information for Non- Governmental Organizations, Mr. Perez de Cuellar said that "no statistic can convey the real meaning of economic deprivation", adding he had seen first hand how a combination of economic crisis and natural calamity had led to acute and widespread starvation and hunger. It was "unacceptable", he said, "that at a time of economic recovery in the industrial world and of a relatively satisfactory global food situation, millions of African men, women and children should undergo suffering of such magnitude". The international community had to demonstrate its capacity and willingness to help, particularly through the uses of the United Nations system, he added. African leaders were determined to rely primarily on their own efforts and to introduce the necessary changes in their domestic policies to overcome the crisis, he went on. He encouraged them to persevere in these efforts and to strengthen them. "But precisely when they are engaged in this difficult and vast undertaking, the concerted support of the international community should not be denied them." (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    More than 1 million African drought victims saved through international efforts, OEOA says.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 Sep; 22:[2] p..

    More than a million people throughout Africa would have perished had it not been for the massive international relief effort launched in December 1984, the Office for Emergency Operations in Africa (OEOA) reported in September. The "partnership between the drought-stricken countries and the international community' helped stave off what would have been an "unprecedented peace-time disaster', the Office stated in its monthly report on the African crisis. In spite of relief efforts and increased rain throughout drought-stricken areas of Africa, the situation in some countries is still critical, the OEOA warned. "One good rainy season can hardly be expected to undo the damage of several years of drought', the report stated. Lesotho was cited as an example of how the mere return of the rains did not necessarily signify the end of the crisis. Earlier forecasts for that country's harvest were about 15 per cent higher than was likely to be the case. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Rwanda: over 1 million refugees return in last half of 1996 - includes related articles on Rwanda's food economy and Women's Collective. [Rwanda : plus d'un million de réfugiés de retour au pays au cours de la deuxième moitié de l'année 1996 - selon des indications issues d'articles portant sur l'économie alimentaire du Rwanda et le Collectif des femmes]

    UN Chronicle. 1996 Winter; 33(4):[4] p..

    An estimated 1.3 million refugees returned to Rwanda between July 1996 and the beginning of January 1997, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Out of that total, an estimated 720,000 came back from camps in Zaire after the intensification of hostilities in the eastern part of that country in August and September. The overwhelming majority returned in November. A further exodus of refugees - this time from the United Republic of Tanzania - began later in the year and ended in early January 1997, bringing another 485,000 Rwandans home. Since July, 88,000 refugees have also returned from Burundi, with several thousand others coming from Uganda. The Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region, Raymond Chretien of Canada, said on 13 December the realization that a temporary multinational humanitarian force might be deployed on the ground, following the Security Council's authorization of such a force on 15 November (S/RES/1080(1996)), had "accelerated tremendously the return of refugees". Speaking to the press at United Nations Headquarters, he called it "an indication that the international community could make a difference if it had the will to do so". (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    100-day relief plan for Somalia launched; famine threatens millions with starvation - includes related information on the death of Mohammed Osman.

    UN Chronicle. 1992 Dec; 29(4):[8] p..

    With famine threatening an estimated 4.5 million people with imminent death from starvation, Under-Secretary- General for Humanitarian Affairs Jan Eliasson announced on 14 September that UN agencies would undertake a comprehensive 100-day play to accelerate relief efforts in Somalia, including immediate and massive infusions of food and seeds, as well as provision of shelter materials, clean water supplies, basic health services and other efforts to stabilize the society and the economy. Somalia on 20 August had welcomed the emergency relief efforts under way, including the beginning of a two-month emergency airlift of food by the United States. The World Food Programme (WFP) had conducted an airlift, in cooperation with the Red Cross and other agencies, into isolated areas in the interior of Somalia and had for some time been flying in food to Mogadishu and the southern region of the country, where starvation and death were almost widespread. The main challenge, reported the Secretary-General on 28 August (S/24480), was not delivering humanitarian relief supplies to ports and airports in Somalia, but protecting the convoys transporting supplies to warehouse and distribution centres. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    The World Food Programme at 30: fighting hunger, feeding hope - includes statistics - United Nations developments.

    UN Chronicle. 1993 Sep; 30(3):[3] p..

    Truck convoys negotiate narrow roads and hostile, hidden snipers to deliver supplies to besieged enclaves in the mountains of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Roaring C-130 cargo planes unload on a dusty Somalian airstrip, bringing manna from the sky to victims of a cruel famine. The world is familiar with these images on television screens, perhaps less so with the day-to-day work of the World Food Programme (WFP) of the UN, which helps bring food into those and other hot-spots of human suffering. Since 1963, WFP has grown from a small experimental programme to the world's largest donator and distributor of food, aiming both to bring quick relief to disaster-areas and foster long-term development and self-sufficiency. On the occasion of WFP's thirtieth anniversary, the UN Chronicle spoke with Executive Director Catherine Ann Bertini. Is the role of WFP different now from its original mandate 30 years ago? Yes, it has changed. When we began operations in 1963, our mandate was to combat hunger and promote economic and social development. The developmental portfolio has expanded and we have assisted about 1,600 projects around the world. The Programme had less than $100 million to spend in its first year, but today WFP's annual budget is around $1.7 billion and our services reach 42 million people. (excerpt)
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