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[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the 1994 Southern Demographic Association Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, October 20-22, 1994. , 40, 10 p.This analysis uses two different measures of the parity progression ratio (PPR) in a period analysis of fertility and the impact of the family planning program on fertility in Kenya. The study is part of a UNFPA project including 14 other developing countries. Survey data from the 1978 World Fertility Survey and the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey provide data for the analysis. PPR is calculated first by a life table technique using birth probabilities specific for parity and birth interval in a period. PPR in the second calculation is an age-parity-adjusted progression based on schedules produced by Feeney. Results are presented for marital unions, first birth, birth intervals, parity progression, the impact of the family planning program, and socioeconomic differences. The results show an increase in age at first birth during the 1970s and 1980s. There is also a decrease in first births among adolescents between the 1960s and the late 1980s. A new finding is a reverse trend; a 1 year decrease in median age at first marriage occurred in urban areas between 1981-85 and 1985-89. The decrease is attributed to an increase in adolescent marriage in the late 1980s. By the 1980s families were being built at older ages, and births were being spaced farther apart. Adolescent first births and high parity births declined between the 1960s and 1980s. The trends reflect a clear and consistent pattern of modernization and better health with decreased population growth. Fertility is expected to reach replacement level soon. The family planning program contributed to the decline in progression to 6th and higher parities by 5% over 30 years. Higher marriage age and later age at first birth were related to higher educational status, although rural marriage age was higher by 0.7 years than urban marriage age. There was a high rate of adolescent marital unions, particularly informal unions, in urban areas. Teenage births were higher in rural areas. Urban women had a lower PPR in all birth orders than rural women. Median birth interval did not vary with educational level. A shorter than 24 month birth interval for 2nd and low order births occurred among the most educated and those in urban areas.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 81 p.Rapid population growth is an obstacle to Vietnam's socioeconomic development. Accordingly, the Government of Vietnam has adopted a population policy aimed at reducing the population growth rate through family planning programs encouraging increased age at 1st birth, birthspacing of 3-5 years, and a family norm of 1-2 children. TFR presently holds at 4, despite declines over the past 2 decades. Current mortality rates are also high, yet expected to continue declining in the years ahead. A resettlement policy also exists, and is aimed at reconfiguring present spatial distribution imbalances. Again, the main thrust of the population program is family planning. The government hopes to lower the annual population growth rate to under 1.8% by the year 2000. Achieving this goal will demand comprehensive population and development efforts targeted to significantly increase the contraceptive prevalence rate. Issues, steps, and recommendations for action are presented and discussed for institutional development strategy; program management and coordination and external assistance; population data collection and analysis; population dynamics and policy formulation; maternal and child health/family planning; information, education and communication; and women, population, and development. Support from UNFPA's 1992-1995 program of assistance should continue and build upon the current program. The present focus upon women, children, grass-roots, and rural areas is encouraged, while more attention is suggested to motivating men and mobilizing communities. Finally, the program is relevant and applicable at both local and national levels.
Women's work and fertility, research findings and policy implications from recent United Nations research.
[Unpublished] 1986. Paper presented at the Rockefeller Foundation's Workshop on Women's Status and Fertility, Mt.Kisco, New York, July 8-11, 1986. 23 p.Using World Fertility Survey data from the developing countries, it has been found that the interval between 1st and last birth varies from roughly 14 years in several of the more developed countries of Latin America and Asia (Republic of Korea, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago) to 20 years in several African countries (Kenya and Senegal). In most of these countries childbearing begins between ages 18 and 20 with the lowest median age of 1st birth found in Bangladesh (17 years old) and the highest in Yemen (22 years old). Ages at last birth vary more widely from 33 in Trinidad and Tobago to 40 in Yemen. At the age of last birth, life expectancy varies from 27 in Benin and Senegal to 44 in Trinidad and Tobago and 42 in Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Panama. Life expectancy at last birth varies with level of development with developing countries at the highest level of development having an average life expectancy at age of last birth of 40.5 ranging on down to 36.8 at a middle-high level of development, 32.6 at a middle-low level, and 29.7 at the lowest level of development. This is compared with a life expectancy at last birth which is now as high as 52.6 in Japan for women born in 1950-1959 and 51.6 in the Netherlands for women born in 1940-1949. Thus, the actual childbearing period is 2 to 5 times longer in the developing countries than it is in the developed countries. A life cycle approach to women's employment and childbearing is essential for a full understanding of the interrelationship between women's status and fertility. While work opportunities can improve women's status and create the motivation for low fertility, fertility control is essential to women's status. As long as the events of conception, pregnancy, and childbirth have a significant element of chance, the incentives for societal and individual investment in women's educational and job opportunities will remain limited.
In: Current problems in obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 5, No. 6, edited by John M. Leventhal. Chicago, Illinois, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1982. 4-41.This article addresses the medical aspects of population growth, with specific focus on a demographic overview, population policies, family planning programs, and population issues in the US. The dimensions of the population problem and their implications for social and economic development are reviewed. The world's response to these issues is discussed, followed by an assessment of what has been accomplished, particularly as it relates to the record of national family planning programs in developing countries. The impact of population growth on such issues as education, available farm land, deforestation, and urban growth are discussed. Urban populations are growing at an unprecedented rate, posing urgent problems for action. From a public health perspective, data are reviewed which demonstrate that having children at short intervals (2 years) or at unfavorable maternal ages (18 or 35) and/or parity (4) has a negative impact on maternal, infant and childhood morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Increasing the age of marriage, delaying the 1st birth, changing and improving the status of women, increasing educational levels and improving living conditions in general also are important in reducing population growth. Probably the most important, but most controversial intervention, has been the development of national family planning programs aimed at increasing the public's access to modern contraceptive and sterilization methods. India was the 1st country to declare a formal population policy (in the 1950s) with the goal of reducing population growth. Currently, close to 35 countries have formal policies. The planned parenthood movement, with central support from the London office of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), has played a most important role in making family planning services available. 2 population issues in the US today are reviewed briefly in the final section: teenage pregnancy and the changing age structure.