Your search found 512 Results
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2018. 91 p.he Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.
National responses to global health targets: exploring policy transfer in the context of the UNAIDS '90-90-90' treatment targets in Ghana and Uganda.
Health Policy and Planning. 2018 Jan 1; 33(1):17-33.Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, program and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS set ‘ambitious’ treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression. Using case studies from Ghana and Uganda, we explore how the target and its associated policy content have been adopted at the national level. That is whether adoption is in rhetoric only or supported by program, policy or budgetary changes. We review 23 (14 from Ghana, 9 from Uganda) national policy, operational and strategic documents for the HIV response and assess commitments to ‘90-90-90’. In-person semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled key informants (17 in Ghana, 20 in Uganda) involved in program-planning and resource allocation within HIV to gain insight into factors facilitating adoption of 90-90-90. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically, inductively and deductively, guided by pre-existing policy theories, including Dolowitz and Marsh’s policy transfer framework to describe features of the transfer and the Global Health Advocacy and Policy Project framework to explain observations. Regardless of notable resource constraints, transfer of the 90-90-90 targets was evident beyond rhetoric with substantial shifts in policy and programme activities. In both countries, there was evidence of attempts to minimize resource constraints by seeking programme efficiencies, prioritization of program activities and devising domestic financing mechanisms; however, significant resource gaps persist. An effective health network, comprised of global and local actors, mediated the adoption and adaptation, facilitating a shift in the HIV program from ‘business as usual’ to approaches targeting geographies and populations.
American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):164-174.The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class."
New York, New York, UN Women, . 4 p. (Policy Brief No. 3)Remittances and their potential to contribute to development are becoming a central focus of global migration governance. With women making up approximately half of all migrant workers globally, there is a shifting focus of many policies and programmes to include remittances sent by women. Based on research and lessons learned from the joint UN Women–EU-funded global project, “Promoting and protecting women migrant workers’ labour and human rights: Engaging with international, national human rights mechanisms to enhance accountability”, which is piloted in Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines, this Brief considers the different ways that women transfer and spend remittances, and provides recommendations to better understand and maximize these remittances.
London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2016 Jun. 12 p.Governments have agreed a range of commitments to advance sustainable development, including promoting women’s and girls’ health and protecting human rights for all. Global commitments are important as they set a framework for funding to flow towards a particular issue and influence national development strategies and programming. As advocates, we can use global commitments to encourage coordination across national development plans, to push for funding and to increase political buy-in. This factsheet will focus on the linkages between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) commitments.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2015. 68 p.Founded in 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) is one of the world’s largest multilateral health funders, disbursing $3-$4 billion a year across 100-plus countries. Many of these countries rely on Global Fund monies to finance their respective disease responses -- and for their citizens, the efficient and effective use of Global Fund monies can be the difference between life and death. Many researchers and policymakers have hypothesized that models tying grant payments to achieved and verified results -- referred to in this report as next generation financing models -- offer an opportunity for the Global Fund to push forward its strategic interests and accelerate the impact of its investments. Free from year-to-year disbursement pressure (like government agencies) and rigid allocation policies (like the World Bank’s International Development Association), the Global Fund is also uniquely equipped to push forward innovative financing models. But despite interest, the how of new grant designs remains a challenge. Realizing their potential requires technical know-how and careful, strategic decisionmaking that responds to specific country and epidemiological contexts -- all with little evidence or experience to guide the way. This report thus addresses the how of next generation financing models -- that is, the concrete steps needed to change the basis of payment from expenses to something else: outputs, outcomes, or impact. (Excerpts)
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Feb. 38 p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper 425)This paper uses contract theory to suggest simple contract designs that could be used by the Global Fund. Using a basic model of procurement, we lay out five alternative options and consider when each is likely to be most appropriate. The rest of the paper then discusses how one can build a real-world contract from these theoretical foundations, and how these contracts should be adapted to different contexts when the basic assumptions do not hold. Finally, we provide a synthesis of these various results with the aim of guiding policy makers as to when and how ‘results-based’ incentive contracts can be used in practice.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2017. 198 p. (UNAIDS/JC2900E)Since they were launched at the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia, in 2014, the 90-90-90 targets have become a central pillar of the global quest to end the AIDS epidemic. The targets reflect a fundamental shift in the world’s approach to HIV treatment, moving it away from a focus on the number of people accessing antiretroviral therapy and towards the importance of maximising viral suppression among people living with HIV. This shift was driven by greater understanding of the benefits of viral suppression -- not only does treatment protect people living with HIV from AIDS-related illness, but it also greatly lowers the risk of transmitting the virus to others.
Who pays for cooperation in global health? A comparative analysis of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
Lancet. 2017; 390:324-332.In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage. We highlight three major trends in global health governance more broadly that relate to this development: towards more discretionary funding and away from core or longer-term funding; towards defined multi-stakeholder governance and away from traditional government-centred representation and decision-making; and towards narrower mandates or problem-focused vertical initiatives and away from broader systemic goals.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2017. 116 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2017 compiles data on 21 health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, with 35 indicators, as well as data on life expectancy. This edition also includes, for the first time, success stories from several countries that are making progress towards the health-related SDG targets.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 64 p.This report is a companion to the World Health Organization’s 2016 guide for “Introducing HPV Vaccine Into National Immunization Programmes.” It summarizes experiences introducing HPV vaccine and provides guidance for introduction.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 186 p.The World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Malaria Report 2016 reveals that children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa have greater access to effective malaria control. Across the region, a steep increase in diagnostic testing for children and preventive treatment for pregnant women has been reported over the last five years. Among all populations at risk of malaria, the use of insecticide-treated nets has expanded rapidly. But in many countries in the region, substantial gaps in programme coverage remain. Funding shortfalls and fragile health systems are undermining overall progress, jeopardizing the attainment of global targets.
Get on the fast-track. The life-cycle approach to HIV. Finding solutions for everyone at every stage of life.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016. 140 p.In this report, UNAIDS is announcing that 18.2 million people now have access to HIV treatment. The Fast-Track response is working. Increasing treatment coverage is reducing AIDS-related deaths among adults and children. But the life-cycle approach has to include more than just treatment. Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the commonest causes of illness and death among people living with HIV of all ages, causing about one third of AIDS-related deaths in 2015. These deaths could and should have been prevented. TB, like cervical cancer, hepatitis C and other major causes of illness and death among people living with HIV, is not always detected in HIV services. It is vital that we collaborate closely with other health programmes to prevent unnecessary deaths. The impact of better treatment coverage means that a growing number of people will be living with HIV into old age, while there has also been an increase in new HIV infections among older people. The consequences of long-term antiretroviral therapy, combined with the diseases of ageing, will be new territory for many HIV programmes. Drug resistance is a major threat to the AIDS response, not just for antiretroviral medicines but also for the antibiotic and antituberculous medicines that people living with HIV frequently need to remain healthy. More people than ever before are in need of second- and third-line medicines for HIV and TB. The human burden of drug resistance is already unacceptable; the financial costs will soon be unsustainable. We need to make sure the medicines we have today are put to best use, and accelerate and expand the search for new treatments, diagnostics, vaccines and an HIV cure. As we build on science and innovation we will need fresh thinking to get us over the remaining obstacles. The cliché is true -- what got us here, won’t get us there. We face persistent inequalities, the threat of fewer resources and a growing conspiracy of complacency. (Excerpt)
Lancet. 2016 May 14; 387(10032):2060-2.Add to my documents.
[Washington, D.C.], FP2020, 2016. 139 p.This report marks the halfway point of the FP2020 initiative, and reflects the substantial progress made to date: 1) There are now more than 300 million women and girls using modern contraception in the world’s 69 poorest countries—a milestone that has taken decades to achieve. 2) More than 30 million of those users have been added since 2012, when FP2020 was launched. 3) In Eastern and Southern Africa, for the first time ever, more than 30% of women and girls are using a modern method of contraception. 4) In West Africa, where contraceptive use has been historically low, the Ouagadougou Partnership has surpassed its goal of reaching 1 million additional users between 2011 and 2015, and is now aiming to reach 2.2 million additional users between 2015 and 2020.
[The results of implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Loan Project "Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "tuberculosis" component]
Tuberkulez I Bolezni Legkikh. 2010; (3):10-7.Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005.  p. (World Bank Working Paper No. 68)In recent years, Europe and Central Asia has experienced the world’s fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Yet, in the Western Balkan countries the HIV prevalence rate is under 0.1 percent, which ranks among the lowest. This may be due to a low level of infection among the population—or partly due to inadequate surveillance systems. All major contributing factors for the breakout of an HIV/AIDS epidemic are present in the Western Balkans. HIV/AIDS disproportionably affects youth (80 percent of HIV-infected people are 30 years old or younger). Most of the Western Balkan countries have very young populations, which have been affected by the process of social transition, wars, unemployment and other factors. Among youth, there is generalized use of drugs and sexual risk behavior. Therefore, the number of cases of HIV has been increasing, especially in Serbia, and the incidence of Hepatitis C has clearly increased, which suggests that sharing of infected needles is practiced by injecting drug users. Apart from human suffering, an HIV/AIDS epidemic can have a significant impact on costs of care for individuals, households, health services and society as a whole. This study has found weak public health systems and gaps in financing and institutional capacity necessary to implement evidence-based and cost-effective HIV/AIDS Strategies. Political commitment must increase for action to occur promptly. Prevention interventions are cost effective and, in the short term, affordable with own-country resources. Medium- and long-term interventions would require donor assistance. Longer-term interventions would aim at preventing poverty, exclusion and unemployment, for example, by empowering young people to participate in the regional and global labor market.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
Global Public Health. 2016 Aug 6; 1-15.The drive for universal health coverage (UHC) now has a great deal of normative impetus, and in combination with the inauguration of the sustainable development goals, has come to be regarded as a means of ensuring the financial basis for the struggle against HIV and AIDS. The argument of this paper is that such thinking is a case of ‘the right thing at the wrong time’: it seriously underestimates the scale of the work against HIV and AIDS, and the speed with which we need to undertake it, if we are to consolidate the gains we have made to date, let alone reduce it to manageable proportions. The looming ‘fiscal crunch’ makes the challenges all the more daunting; even in the best circumstances, the time required to establish UHCs capable of providing both essential health services and a very rapid scale-up of the fight against HIV and AIDS is insufficient when set against the urgency of ensuring that AIDS does not eventuate as a global health catastrophe.
The Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents' Health 2016-2030. Survive, Thrive, Transform.
[New York, New York], Every Woman Every Child, 2015.  p.The ambition of the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health is to end preventable deaths among all women, children and adolescents, to greatly improve their health and well-being and to bring about the transformative change needed to shape a more prosperous and sustainable future. This updated Global Strategy was developed by a wide range of national, regional and global stakeholders under the umbrella of the Every Woman Every Child movement, with strong engagement from WHO and builds upon the 2010-2015 Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. Launched by the UN Secretary-General on 26 September in New York, this updated Global Strategy, spanning the 15 years of the SDGs, provides guidance to accelerate momentum for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. It should achieve nothing less than a transformation in health and sustainable development by 2030 for all women, children and adolescents, everywhere.
London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, .  p.In October 2015, the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board adopted a new strategy to end the HIV epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The UNAIDS 2016-2021 Strategy is one of the first in the United Nations system to be aligned to the Sustainable Development Goals framework. This framework, which guides global development policy over the next 15 years, includes ending the HIV epidemic by 2030. The strategy, informed by evidence and rights-based approaches, maps out the UNAIDS Fast-Track approach to accelerate the HIV response over the next five years so as to reach critical HIV prevention and treatment targets and achieve zero discrimination. The strategy also endorses achieving 90–90–90 treatment targets, closing the testing gap, and protecting the health of the 22 million people living with HIV who are still not accessing treatment. Additionally, it urges protecting future generations from acquiring HIV by eliminating all new HIV infections among children, and by ensuring that young people can access needed services for HIV and sexual and reproductive health. The strategy emphasizes that empowering young people, particularly young women, is of utmost importance to preventing HIV. This empowerment includes ending gender-based violence and promoting healthy gender norms.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2015.  p.This document, released on the World AIDS Day 2015, provides an update on the global status of the HIV epidemic. According to the press release, the epidemic has been forced into decline. New HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths have fallen dramatically since the peak of the epidemic. The document cites a 35 percent decrease in new HIV infections; a 42 percent decrease in AIDS-related deaths since the peak in 2004; a 58 percent decrease in new HIV infections among children since 2000; and an 84 percent increase in access to antiretroviral therapy since 2010. Additionally, the global response to HIV has averted 30 million new HIV infections and 7.8 million AIDS-related deaths since 2000. While acknowledging these achievements, the report also emphasizes that accelerating the AIDS response in low-and middle-income countries could avert 28 million new HIV infections and 21 million AIDS-related deaths between 2015 and 2030, saving US$24 billion annually in additional HIV treatment costs. The next phase of the global response must accommodate new circumstances, opportunities, and evidence, including a rapidly shifting context and a new, sustainable development agenda. The single priority of the HIV response for the next 15 years is to end the epidemic by 2030.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015.  p.In 2015 the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) come to the end of their term, and a post-2015 agenda, comprising 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), takes their place. This WHO report looks back 15 years at the trends and positive forces during the MDG era and assesses the main challenges that will affect health in the coming 15 years.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr.  p. (FS-15-136; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)This executive summary introduces the full report (See POPLINE record 337627) examining the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region.