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Guatemala: Orienting affiliates on the design and implementation of a state-of-the-art management system.
Notes from the Field. 2001 Jun; (5): p..A three-person team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region conducted a training workshop in Guatemala for several affiliates on the design and implementation of the Integrated Management System and also received feedback on the system. A three-person team from IPPF/WHR recently conducted a training workshop in Antigua, Guatemala for several IPPF/WHR affiliates on the design and implementation of the highly anticipated Integrated Management System (IMS). The workshop was an opportunity both to orient the participants to the new system as well as to get their feedback on the IMS and the extent to which it meets their needs. WHR team members included Leslie, Director of MIS, María Cristina, Regional Supplies Officer, and Rupal, Evaluation Officer. (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2001 May; (4): p..A team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region traveled to Trinidad to conduct a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten affiliates who have programs on HIV prevention and youth. Then they went to Guyana to provide technical assistance and training for a sustainability model. Lucella, IPPF/WHR's Senior Program Advisor for the Caribbean, was recently in Trinidad as a member of a team conducting a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten IPPF/WHR affiliates. The following week she traveled to Guyana with another team from WHR, one that provided training in the use of the S2000ä Financial Model, a cash flow forecasting tool developed by the EFS (Endowment Fund for Sustainability). (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2002 Feb; (13): p..Several NGOs and government agencies, including IPPF/WHR's affiliate PROFAMIL, are working hard to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of women, men, and youth in Haiti. Recently, IPPF/WHR has sought to support these efforts by strengthening the capacity of PROFAMIL and other agencies to develop and implement results-oriented projects that can become sustainable. A four-person team from IPPF/WHR traveled to Haiti in January 2002 to conduct a project design and proposal writing workshop with representatives from several local NGOs, including PROFAMIL, FOSREF, VDH, UNFPA, and the ministries of Health and Education. Participants came armed with statistics and other information on a specific problem that their organization would like to address, as well as intervention ideas. First, participants developed conceptual models for their project ideas; then they wrote actual proposals to seek funding. Participants used tools, such as a conceptual model and a logical framework, to assist them in the project design and proposal-writing process, with a particular emphasis on integrating monitoring and evaluation plans into their proposed interventions. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. x, 51 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 159)A World Bank report outlines the results of an empirical study. It lists institutional characteristics connected with successful tropical disease control programs, describes their importance, and extracts useful lessons for disease control specialists and managers. The study covers and compares 7 successful tropical disease control programs: the endemic disease program in Brazil; schistosomiasis control programs in China, Egypt, and Zimbabwe; and the malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis programs in the Philippines. All of these successful programs, as defined by reaching goals over a 10-15 year period, are technology driven. Specifically they establish a relevant technological strategy and package, and use operational research to appropriately adapt it to local conditions. Further they are campaign oriented. The 7 programs steer all features of organization and management to applying technology in the field. Moreover groups of expert staff, rather than administrators, have the authority to decide on technical matters. These programs operate both vertically and horizontally. Further when it comes to planning strategy they are centralized, but when it comes to actual operations and tasks, they are decentralized. Besides they match themselves to the task and not the task to the organization. Successful disease control programs have a realistic idea of what extension activities, e.g., surveillance and health education, is possible in the field. In addition, they work with households rather than the community. All employees are well trained. Program managers use informal and professional means to motivate then which makes the programs productive. The organizational structure of these programs mixes standardization of technical procedures with flexibility in applying rules and regulations, nonmonetary rewards to encourage experience based use of technological packages, a strong sense of public service, and a strong commitment to personal and professional development.
Improving family planning, health, and nutrition in India: experience from some World Bank-assisted programs.
Washington, D.C., The World Bank, 1989. , 45 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 59)This paper looks at the experience of 3 large-scale, World Bank- assisted, outreach programs in India, and attempts to distill some lessons for the design and management of the National Family Welfare and Integrated Child Development Services programs. The 3 programs reviewed are 1) the Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Project, which has halved the rate of severe malnutrition in about 9000 villages in Tamil Nadu; 2) the training and visit system of agricultural extension, being implemented in most of the major states of India and in about 40 other countries; and 3) the health component of the Calcutta Urban Development Project, which has sharply increased immunization and contraceptive prevalence rates among slum dwellers in that city. In spite of these programs being in different sectors, they have a number of design and management features in common: 1) field workers focus on a manageable number of priority tasks; 2) the ratio of clients to workers is reasonable; 3) workers are trained to follow a defined daily routine concentrating on clients most in need of services; 4) workers receive regular, in-service training complemented by regular, supportive supervision; 5) 2 of the 3 programs recruit local workers; and 6) clients are involved in implementation. Design and management improvements could be made in 1) increasing field worker productivity by concentrating on priority tasks, 2) making services more responsive to community needs and therefore increasing demand, 3) developing a national-level family planning in- service training program, and 4) initiating operations research programs in service delivery.
Draft team member contributions to mid-term evaluation of the Population and Family Planning Project (608-0171) in Morocco.
[Unpublished] 1988 Mar. 13 p.The draft team member contributions to the mid-term evaluation of the population and family planning project in Morocco examine current progress and address future needs. Increased awareness of at least 1 method of family planning was attributed to a USAID-funded project. But, problems of access, religious constraints, and lack of method-specific media campaigns need to be addressed. An increased effort to direct promotion efforts toward men is needed, as a prior immunization program showed that the husband was a key factor in encouraging mothers to bring their children to be vaccinated. Because the local health worker plays a critical role at the community level, training and support for these workers should be emphasized. Media-specific and audience-specific campaigns, by the government and private sector, should focus on the most cost-effective means of reaching the provincial level population. Donor organizations (such as UNICEF, UNFPA and USAID) should address the IEC needs identified by the central health education office, whose role and supporting functions need to be strengthened. Content of family planning materials must be method-specific, using a systematic methodology to address problems of inappropriateness, inadequate contraceptive mix, and lack of field worker training materials. Improved distribution methods for existing materials, as well as increased use of television and mass media are viable options. Using the community more effectively by encouraging leader motivation and instituting incentives could help to improve promotional and distributional activities at the provincial level. An evaluation of training needs revealed that the workshop method of training may be overemphasized, and most health workers expressed a desire for lengthened training. The private sector could be sensitized to public health issues and needs and, in conjunction with out of country technical assistance, produce effective social marketing of contraceptives within the Moroccan context. Coordination with other donors would be beneficial, with the exchange of documents and meetings between the groups.
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA funded project on labour and family welfare education in organized sector in Zambia (September-October 1986).
Arlington, Virgina, Development Associates, 1986. iii, 71 p.This report evaluates the UNFPA-funded Labor and Family Welfare project in the Organized Sector of Zambia, Africa. The project targeted 3 key elements of the Organized Sector--motivation of leaders, training of educators, and in-plant workers' education. The project laid the groundwork for a major expansion of education and services at the workers' level. It has also led to a National Population Policy formulation. 18 recommendations are suggested with priority given to factory-level education and family planning service delivery. Additional funding for companies to motivate and educate workers regarding acceptance of family planning services is suggested, as well as increased training for economics, teachers, psychology teachers, and social workers to enable them to incorporate population education into their curriculums. Training activities were a major focus of the project. Increased training and educational materials about family planning, in the form of posters and handouts, should be produced and disseminated at the factory level, as well as to medical personnel. UNFPA, in accord with the Ministry of Health of Zambia, should ensure an adequate supply of contraceptives to the factories. Existing record keeping, reporting and scheduling practices should be improved, as well as the International Labor Organization (ILO) disbursement system. Short-term ILO consultants should be recruited to improve the project and its management, and 2 additional staff members, provided by the government, could help to implement the program at the plant level. 2 new vehicles should be purchased for full-time field staff to ensure availability to carry out project activities. In addition, the present accounting and recordkeeping of the ILO Lusaka office should be restructured to achieve more accurate monitoring of the use of project funds.
London, England, British Life Assurance Trust for Health and Medical Education, 1981 Jul. 140 p. (WHO Project No. 77908)The Family Fertility Education Learning Package (LP) is a collection of teaching and learning materials on natural family planning (NFP) produced by the British Life Assurance Trust for Health Education at the request of the World Health Organization (WHO). The LP is intended to form the core of a standardized curriculum for instructing NFP teachers and user-couples in ovulation and sympto-thermal methods of NFP. The LP consists of an educational handbook, compendium of goals and objectives, glossary, and 4 modules (fertility awareness, sexuality and responsibility, ovulation method, and sympto-thermal method) and 4 corresponding sets of visual aids. Field trials included selection of test countries and allocation of methods to those sites; selection and training of principal personnel, trainee teachers, and user-couples; and evaluation procedures. Test countries were Canada, Colombia, Kenya, Korea, Philippines, and the UK. 200 trainee teachers were initially recruited, 86 of whom discontinued. 512 new users were recruited, largely through personal contact with a teacher trainee, for the sympto-thermal method and 378 for the ovulation method; 135 in the former group and 46 in the latter group discontinued. Data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and acceptability of the LP and to determine the extent to which it is feasible to produce a LP which can be used in any culture or environment. 5 conclusions were drawn regarding the project itself: 1) selection criteria for teachers and users were too strict, 2) training of principal personnel was incomplete, 3) the key figures in the evaluation of the project did not remain constant, 4) lack of money impeded implementation of principles of educational methodology, and 5) there was no training in recruitment techniques. 32 specific recommendations are made for expanding, clarifying, and re-formatting the LP. However, no major modifications of the LP are suggested. Users reported they acquired sufficient knowledge, skills, and attitudes from the LP to use NFP methods. The flexibility and adaptability of the LP were cited by teacher trainees. Although most centers supplemented the LP with their own materials, no country replaced a substantial part of the LP or taught NFP in a method discordant with the aims of the LP.
[Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 21 p.The author describes the establishment of a rural health service in Companigonj thana in Bangladesh done jointly by the government and international relief agencies. Provision was made for integrated health services including family planning, child health services, maternal health services, nutrition programs, and both curative and preventive medicine. Field workers, mostly female, were trained to provide medical services not requiring a doctor's presence. The author finds a marked increase in attendance at the health service over a period of years. The government should intensify its participation in the health service component for the program to have a chance of taking hold. Tables to illustrate the experience of the program in money expended; numbers of patients; cost per patient; clinic attendance by age, sex; hospital deliveries; new family planning acceptors; contraceptive usage; mortality and birth rate and causes of death by age; and antenatal follow up.
How many by 2000: counting births and deaths. Report of a Working Group, Rijeka, Yugoslavia, 14-18 September 1981.
Geneva, WHO, . 17 p. (WHO/HS/NAT.COM/82.375)The overall objective of the Working Group of the World Health Organization (WHO) meeting in Yugoslavia during September 1981 was to examine methods for counting births and deaths and so provide adequate health statistics as required by the community, the primary health care services and health administrators. The role of civil registration, the national census and survey procedures for providing basic demographic and health statistics was dealt with extensively. Health care workers require information that relates directly to and derives from the care they provide, in particular: maternal and child health services, including family planning; medical surveillance; and immunization. The managers and health service administrators need information that is frequently derived from these caring activities but which can then be used in defining health policy, forecasting needs, health and service planning, monitoring health programs, and technical and environmental studies. Focus in this report is on the following: sources of information on births and deaths (information from the census, information from civil registration, information from hospitals and other health centers, and the need for alternative sources of birth and death information); counting births and deaths at primary health care level (the definition of community health worker; collecting, acquiring and recording information; reporting, supervision, and information feedback; counting of births and deaths by health community workers; cause of death, presenting symptoms or complaints before death; primary health care activities as a basis for counting births and deaths; establishing boundaries and enumerating the community); survey requirements; collecting information on births and deaths--the advantages and disadvantages of principal methods; utilization of information on births and deaths; and training, teaching materials, and exchange of information. The national census and civil registration provides the essential information on the structure and composition of the population, including some information on births and deaths, but the needs of the health services for information on births and deaths are more extensive and are not fully met by the census or by a civil registration system. Additional and alternative methods for collecting this information are necessary. Recommendations are made in order to develop these alternative methods as effectively and expeditiously as possible.
Project agreement on family planning between the government of Pakistan and United Nations Fund for Population Activities.
[Unpublished] 1970 Aug. 17 p.Add to my documents.
Horizons. 1983 Apr; 2(4):14-20.In Honduras and the Gambia the US Agency for International Development's (AID's) Bureau for Science and Technology and its contractors, working with the Ministry of Health in each country and drawing upon experts in health communications, anthropology, and behavioral psychology, have developed a health education methodology that integrates mass media and health providers. The project uses radio, graphics, and the training of village health workers to teach mothers how to treat and prevent diarrheal dehydration. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the AID assisted International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, have demonstrated that lost body fluid and electrolytes can be replaced with an orally administered solution. The treatment is known as ORT, oral rehydration therapy. AID efforts in Honduras and Gambia are showing that semi-literate persons, contacted primarily through the mass media, can be taught to mix and administer ORT. The campaign also includes a number of preventive measures. The Gambian government chose to use ORT packets prepared according to the WHO formula at health centers as a backup to the similar home mix solution. Honduras chose to package their own ORT salts, following the WHO formula, for use both at health centers and in the home. In Gambia the Ministry of Health created a national contest which kicked off with the distribution of 200,000 copies of a flyer carrying mixing instructions to nearly 2000 Gambian villages. Repeated radio announcements in Gambia's 2 major languages told mothers to gather and listen to contest instructions. The radio announcer led listeners through each panel of the color coded flyer which told them how to mix and administer ORT. 11,000 women attended the 72 village contests. Of the 6580 who entered the mixing competition, 1440 won a chance to compete and 1097 won prizes for correct mixing. After 8 months of campaign activities, the number of mothers who reported using a sugar-salt solution to treat their children's diarrhea rose from 3% to 48% (within the sample of some 750 households). The number of women who could recite the formula jumped from 1% to 64%. In Honduras a keynote poster for the campaign that featured a loving mother was distributed simultaneously with the airing of the 1st phase of the radio spots and programs. Within a year 93% of the mothers knew that the radio campaign was promoting Litrosol, the name of the locally packaged ORT salts; 71% could recite the radio jingle stressing the administration of liquid during diarrhea, and 42% knew that Litrosol prevented dehydration. 49% of all mothers in the sample had tried Litrosol at least once during the campaign.
[Unpublished] . 24 p.Focus in this annual report of the Executive Director of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) for 1982 is on the following: program development and implementation; Planfed News Magazine; community education; family life education (FLE) for youth and adults; resource development and integration; FLE seminar for curriculum developers and trainees; family planning training for nurses and midwives; program impact evaluation; program management; administration and general services; commodities (contraceptives, clinic supplies and equipment, audiovisual equipment, and vehicles); volunteer inputs; branch activities, fieldwork; sessional clinic services; administrative and financial accounting; and interagency collaboration. The 1982 program year witnessed an era of new initiatives and renewed efforts in all aspects of PPFN operations, particularly in program development, management, and administration. Program implementation was improved and strenghened through the establishment of new and the revision of old operational procedures and guidelines. Staff of the Program Development Department (PDD) visited 15 branches to monitor and supervise activities and to provide technical assistance as required. The most prominent accomplishment for 1982 was in the area of contraceptive service delivery. A more than 22% increase was realized in the number of new family planning acceptors recruited and served, compared with the figure for 1981. Program development efforts for the year focused on initiating new or modifying and strengthening existing strategies that would enhance and facilitate the development of more effective, innovative, and community based family planning education and service projects and activities. 2 separate issues of Planfed News Magazine were published on schedule during the year, and 5000 copies of each were printed. The operational objectives of the community education project were the organization of radio and television discussion programs in Kano and Kaduna; broadcasting of radio spot announcements in Oyo, Lagos, Anambra, Bendel, Ondo, Rivers, and Cross River States; and the production of 5000 annual calendars and 5000 Christmas greeting cards. Program impact evaluation revealed that over 26% of the 925 respondents in 15 locations throughout Nigeria received family planning information from PPFN fieldworkers. Other sources of information included doctor, nurse/midwife, friend, relative, and the mass media.
World Health Forum. 1983; 4(2):157-61.In developing countries, the delivery of basic health care services is often hampered by communications problems. A pilot project in Guyana, involving 2-way radio in 9 medex (medical extension) locations, was funded by USAID (United States Aid for International Development). A training manual was prepared, and a training workshop provided the medex workers with practical experience in using the radios. The 2-way radios have facilitated arrangements for the transport of goods, hastened arrangements for leave, and shortened delays in correspondence and other administrative matters. Communication links enable rural health workers to treat patients with the advice of a doctor and allow doctors to monitor patient progress. Remote medex workers report that regular radio contacts with their colleagues have lessened their sense of isolation, boosted their morale, and helped build their confidence. 1 important element of the project was the training given to the field workers in proper use of the radio and in basic maintenance. Another key to the success of the system appears to be the strength and professionalism of the medex organization itself. Satellite systems may eventually prove to be the most cost effective means of providing rural telephone and broadcasting services and may also be designed to include dedicated medical communications networks at very little additional cost.
[Unpublished] 1982. 99 p.In 1978, a project of labor and family welfare education was launched in Zambia in the Ministry of Labour Social Services. It was financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and executed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). One of the important tasks initiated by the project expert was the preparation of a self-contained teaching manual for the use of labor educators in conducting training in labor, population and family welfare for the workers at the grassroots level. This publication is the culmination of that effort. It is divided into 3 sections: education and learning, population and development, and family welfare concepts. Topics covered include: educational meetings; communication aids; information and publicity; national population issues and the worker's quality of life; population dynamics and the quality of life; migration; family economics; meeting basic needs; and methods of contraception. Although the manual is addressed to and based on the specific situation in Zambia, the experience gained under the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programmes elsewhere has also been used wherever relevant. Similarly, although the manual is intended for specific use in Zambia, it should be possible to use it elsewhere with necessary adaptations.