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China: Helping the People's Republic of China introduce a gender perspective in its 'reoriented' family planning program.
Notes from the Field. 2001 Aug; (8): p..International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region staff traveled to China to provide technical assistance to the Ford Foundation project "Gender Perspective in Quality of Care in Family Planning." They reviewed some basic concepts of gender and quality, and then examined the six instruments in the manual that is being adapted for China. In July 2001, Judith H., director of IPPF/WHR's Sexual and Reproductive Health Unit, visited with members of the China Population Information and Research Center and the All-China Women's Federation in Beijing to provide technical assistance to the Ford Foundation-supported project, "Gender Perspective in Quality of Care in Family Planning." (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2001 Jul; (6): p..International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region staff visited Belize in June 2001 to work with the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) on sustainability and management aspects of its strategic plan for sexual and reproductive health care. The slogan they developed was Efficient Services with a Human Face." IPPF/WHR Senior Program Advisors Lucella and Humberto were in Belize in June 2001 to work with IPPF/WHR's affiliate there, the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA), on the sustainability and management aspects of its strategic plan. BFLA recently received a grant from the Summit Foundation to construct a new headquarters that will allow for expanded services. (excerpt)
Guatemala: Orienting affiliates on the design and implementation of a state-of-the-art management system.
Notes from the Field. 2001 Jun; (5): p..A three-person team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region conducted a training workshop in Guatemala for several affiliates on the design and implementation of the Integrated Management System and also received feedback on the system. A three-person team from IPPF/WHR recently conducted a training workshop in Antigua, Guatemala for several IPPF/WHR affiliates on the design and implementation of the highly anticipated Integrated Management System (IMS). The workshop was an opportunity both to orient the participants to the new system as well as to get their feedback on the IMS and the extent to which it meets their needs. WHR team members included Leslie, Director of MIS, María Cristina, Regional Supplies Officer, and Rupal, Evaluation Officer. (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2001 May; (4): p..A team from International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region traveled to Trinidad to conduct a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten affiliates who have programs on HIV prevention and youth. Then they went to Guyana to provide technical assistance and training for a sustainability model. Lucella, IPPF/WHR's Senior Program Advisor for the Caribbean, was recently in Trinidad as a member of a team conducting a Proposal Writing Workshop for ten IPPF/WHR affiliates. The following week she traveled to Guyana with another team from WHR, one that provided training in the use of the S2000ä Financial Model, a cash flow forecasting tool developed by the EFS (Endowment Fund for Sustainability). (excerpt)
Notes from the Field. 2002 Feb; (13): p..Several NGOs and government agencies, including IPPF/WHR's affiliate PROFAMIL, are working hard to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of women, men, and youth in Haiti. Recently, IPPF/WHR has sought to support these efforts by strengthening the capacity of PROFAMIL and other agencies to develop and implement results-oriented projects that can become sustainable. A four-person team from IPPF/WHR traveled to Haiti in January 2002 to conduct a project design and proposal writing workshop with representatives from several local NGOs, including PROFAMIL, FOSREF, VDH, UNFPA, and the ministries of Health and Education. Participants came armed with statistics and other information on a specific problem that their organization would like to address, as well as intervention ideas. First, participants developed conceptual models for their project ideas; then they wrote actual proposals to seek funding. Participants used tools, such as a conceptual model and a logical framework, to assist them in the project design and proposal-writing process, with a particular emphasis on integrating monitoring and evaluation plans into their proposed interventions. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1984 Jul. , 193 p.As of 1984, Lebanon had not yet formulated a clear and specific population policy because laws existed against contraception and political differences among the various ethnic groups also existed which culminated in a civil war. Nevertheless the government condoned the creation of the Lebanese Family Planning Association (LFPA) in August 1969 and its activities. The government also helped spread family planning through its own institutions such as the Ministry of Health and the Office of Social Development. Further some of LFPA's staff members have been part of the government itself. LFPA conducted a survey in June 1975 in Zahrani in rural south Lebanon and it showed that the people wished to limit their fertility, but could not since birth control was not available. Therefore LFPA established the 1st Community Based Family Planning Services Program in Zahrani which later spread to other villages. Wasitas (field workers) served as the major means of providing birth control and information to the women. They emphasized child spacing. The wasitas also served as a major adaptive and indigenous agent of social change and development. Initially they underwent intensive training lasting at least 1 week, but in 1979, LFPA hosted annual 1 month training sessions. The wasitas use of traditional communication methods resulted in not only an increase of contraceptive use, but also in meeting the elemental needs of the women for psychological comfort and self reliance. In some instances, however, some wasitas resorted to deception in encouraging the most uneducated women to use birth control because of strong incentives, e.g., the wasita received 50% of the money earned for the sale of each contraceptive. LFPA needed to reassess those measures which lead to possible encroachment of the dignity and freedom of choice of the women villagers.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations, 1983 Jul. 20 p. (Information for Action Resource Guide)Women in developing countries have special nutritional needs because of the tremendous physical burdens they bear in daily tasks, pregnancy, and lactation. Poverty and custom often cause these needs to go unmet. Poor maternal nutrition affects not only the mother's health, but also that of her children. While some elements of maternal nutrition are well known, discussion and experimentation continue on important nutritional and delivery issues. This Resource Guide, aimed at field staff who are not nutritionists, summarizes recent literature on this important topic. The annotations discuss both the causes and effects of maternal undernutrition. They also describe simple monitoring techniques to gauge maternal nutrition status and short-term programmatic interventions such as food fortification, food supplementation, vitamin distribution, and health education. The documents chosen synthesize important issues and experiences. The documents included are highly selective; some important literature and projects are not mentioned as this guide is mainly designed for busy program officials. Readers are encouraged to consult the references cited thorughout the guide for in-depth studies. Non-technical language is used throughout the text to facilitate understanding of the main concepts and issues.
[Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 21 p.The author describes the establishment of a rural health service in Companigonj thana in Bangladesh done jointly by the government and international relief agencies. Provision was made for integrated health services including family planning, child health services, maternal health services, nutrition programs, and both curative and preventive medicine. Field workers, mostly female, were trained to provide medical services not requiring a doctor's presence. The author finds a marked increase in attendance at the health service over a period of years. The government should intensify its participation in the health service component for the program to have a chance of taking hold. Tables to illustrate the experience of the program in money expended; numbers of patients; cost per patient; clinic attendance by age, sex; hospital deliveries; new family planning acceptors; contraceptive usage; mortality and birth rate and causes of death by age; and antenatal follow up.
London, IPPF, Feb. 1975. 24 p. plus 14 p.Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] 1977. 39 pAdd to my documents.
Population Bulletin. 1977 Feb; 31(5):1-39.All but 8 percent of the developing world's population now lives in countries which support activities designed explicitly or implicitly to reduce high rates of fertility. This Bulletin describes the indispensable role of planned communication in the rapid expansion of these activities from the emphasis on making contraceptives accessible to those ready to receive them, typical of early family planning programs, to promotion of a full range of "beyond family planning" measures aimed at creating a climate in which small families are viewed as desirable by people everywhere. Current approaches to planned population and family planning communication, as illustrated by numerous country examples, range from the use of field workers, volunteers, midwives and the like, who deliver their messages on a person-to-person basis, to full-scale mass communication campaigns which may employ both traditional folk media and modern advertising and social marketing techniques. Also discussed are population education as a somewhat different approach, not necessarily aimed at reduced fertility, and the recent rapid shift in the U.S. climate for population and family planning communication. (author's)
Appropriate Technology for Health Newsletter. 1983; (12):1-22.Human nutrition is a dynamic science concerned with nutritional requirements, food composition, food consumption, food habits, the relationship between diet and health, and research in this field. This article touches on these aspects as they relate to prospective mothers and the care of their children, especially in the first 5 years of life, with a focus on developing countries. It deals with details of birth intervals, adequate breastfeeding, and adequate nutrition for both mother and child to help prevent malnutrition and deficiency diseases. Stress is laid on factors of children's growth such as body weight and height that primary health care workers must monitor while they work in the context of any culture. Programs for improved nutrition need to be drawn up with respect to the traditions and values of indigenous cultures. The article concludes with bibliographies dealing with 1) women, children and nutrition, 2) nutrition and primary health care, and 3) community development.
Summary: field trip report, Agency for International Development, Sri Lanka, (Colombo, Kalutara, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya), July 14 to August 2, 1982.
[Unpublished] 1982. 19 p.This report, prepared for the US Agency for International Developement (USAID), provides a description and assessment of the 4 social marketing programs operating in Sri Lanka, an inventory of the program's current contraceptive supplies, an estimate of the programs' supply requirements for 1983-85, and several recommendations for improving social marketing activities in the country. The assessment was made during a brief visit to Sri Lanka in the summer of 1982. Supply requirements were difficult to assess since there is little coordination between the programs. The programs are supplied by a variety of donor organizations, and record keeping is inadequate in some programs. The 4 programs are operated by 1) the Family Health Bureau (FHB) of the Ministry of Health, 2) the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASIL), 3) Population Services International (PSI), and 4) Community Development Services (CDS). The FHB program sells oral contraceptives (OCS) and condoms. During 1983-85, most of the program's supplies are expected to be obtained form the UN Fund for Population Activities. The FPASIL program was initiated in 1974 and distributes 10 brands of condoms and 3 brands of OCS. The program receives supplies from the International Planned Parenthood Federation and USAID. The PSI program trains Ayurvedic practitioners to distribute OCs and condoms. Most of the contraceptives are distributed free of charge but some are marketed. The program obtains its supplies from the FHB stocks and distributes them to the practitioners via the postal system. The Community Development Service is a privately run organization which conducts a variety of projects including the marketing of OCs and condoms through health workers and Ayurvedic practitioners. The program is supplied by several donors and is currently requesting condoms from USAID. Detailed information on the program is unavailable; however, it appears that the program overestimated its contraceptive needs for 1983. Between 1975-82, the proportion of married women of reproductive age relying on traditional methods increased from 17%-25%, the proportion relying on sterilization increased from 13%-17%, and the proportion using other modern methods increased from 11%-13%. In 1982, the proportion using OCs was 2.64% and the proportion using condoms was 3.19%. The marketing programs distribute primarily condoms and OCs. Estimated USAID delivery requirements for 1983 included 3,500,000 condoms for the FHB and FPASIL programs and 700,000 cycles of OCs for the FPASIL program. Requirements for 1984 could be estimated only for the FPASIL program and included 800,000 OC cycles and 8,500,000 condoms. The Ministry of Health should commission an outside review of all social marketing activities to identify appropriate and complementary functions for the 2 major programs (FPASIL and FHB) and a local review of the Ayurvedic practitioner training and distribution programs of CDS and PSI. Condoms provided by USAID for the FHB and CDS programs should differ in brand and packaging from those marketed by FPASIL. The progrms' service statistics and logistics should be improved. Research should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to the increase in the use of traditional contraceptive methods and to explore why only minimal increases in the use of modern contraceptives have occurred since 1975. Consideration should be given to setting up a central warehouse for stocking the nation's contraceptive supplies. All programs would then obtain their supplies from this central facilities. USAID assistance would be available for implementing a number of these recommendations.