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United States. Exploring the environment / population links and the role of major donors, foundations and nongovernmental organizations.
In: No vacancy: global responses to the human population explosion, edited by Michael Tobias, Bob Gillespie, Elizabeth Hughes and Jane Gray Morrison. Pasadena, California, Hope Publishing House, 2006. 103-196.The mission of the World Bank is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development bank which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge-sharing services to low- and middle-income countries to reduce poverty. It also promotes growth to create jobs and to empower poor people to take advantage of these opportunities. The World Bank works to bridge the economic divide between rich and poor countries. As one of the world's largest sources of development assistance, it supports the efforts of developing countries to build schools and health centers, provide water and electricity, fight disease and protect the environment. As one of the United Nations' specialized agencies, it has 184 member countries that are jointly responsible for how the institution is financed and how its money is spent. There are 10,000 development professionals from nearly every country in the world who work in its Washington DC headquarters and in its 109 country offices. The World Bank is the world's largest long-term financier of HIV/AIDS programs and its current commitments for HIV/AIDS amount to more than $1.3 billion --half of which is targeted for sub-Saharan Africa. (excerpt)
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA funded project on labour and family welfare education in organized sector in Zambia (September-October 1986).
Arlington, Virgina, Development Associates, 1986. iii, 71 p.This report evaluates the UNFPA-funded Labor and Family Welfare project in the Organized Sector of Zambia, Africa. The project targeted 3 key elements of the Organized Sector--motivation of leaders, training of educators, and in-plant workers' education. The project laid the groundwork for a major expansion of education and services at the workers' level. It has also led to a National Population Policy formulation. 18 recommendations are suggested with priority given to factory-level education and family planning service delivery. Additional funding for companies to motivate and educate workers regarding acceptance of family planning services is suggested, as well as increased training for economics, teachers, psychology teachers, and social workers to enable them to incorporate population education into their curriculums. Training activities were a major focus of the project. Increased training and educational materials about family planning, in the form of posters and handouts, should be produced and disseminated at the factory level, as well as to medical personnel. UNFPA, in accord with the Ministry of Health of Zambia, should ensure an adequate supply of contraceptives to the factories. Existing record keeping, reporting and scheduling practices should be improved, as well as the International Labor Organization (ILO) disbursement system. Short-term ILO consultants should be recruited to improve the project and its management, and 2 additional staff members, provided by the government, could help to implement the program at the plant level. 2 new vehicles should be purchased for full-time field staff to ensure availability to carry out project activities. In addition, the present accounting and recordkeeping of the ILO Lusaka office should be restructured to achieve more accurate monitoring of the use of project funds.
IMCH Newsletter. 1979 Sep; 10(120):1, 3-4.In appraising the current status, problems and approaches of the Philippines population program, initial focus is on providing a brief account of the program's development. A national family planning program that respected the religions beliefs and values of individuals was the 1st step. These early family planning efforts were physician oriented, clinic-based, and female-oriented, and the acceptance rates continued to be low. In response to this, population and family planning was made an integral part of the socioeconomic development of the country. This new orientation paved the way for the birth of the national population and family planning project which is currently the program's core project. The outreach project was intended to stregthen the programs' capability to reach out to the remote areas through its Full-Time Outreach Workers (FTOW) and Barangay supply points. This program is being implemented throughout the Philippines. About 2596 full-time outreach workers, 31,592 barangay supply points, and 3612 family planning clinics are making family planning information and services available to the population. Based on outreach reports, current users increased from 780,183 to 815,061 by March 1979. These accomplishments contributed greatly to the decline in the population growth rate from 3.01 in 1960-1970 to 2.78% in 1970-1975. Greater concerted efforts still need to be exerted to achieve target populations by the year 2000. The special committee to review the Philippine population program has recommended that the concept of family planning be redefined to include family welfare. The program continues to implement complementary and supplementary sets of projects which are termed phase 1 project, population planning 2 projects, and population loan 1 and 2.
In: Report of the APHA Survey Team for AID/Korea. n.p., mimeo, Sept. 1971, pp. 9-28Add to my documents.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1978; 7(3):30-33, 42.Family planning was officially adopted as an instrument of national economic development policy in the Republic of Korea in 1961. While it was 1st based in the national health program, it gradually evolved into a diversified approach and today the family planning program is integrated into other fields of development activity. International attention is focussed on the Korean program of combining family planning with community development activity. In 1979, a "multipurpose health worker" will replace the 3 existing health field workers: family planning, mother and child health, and tuberculosis control. This is a continuation of the government effort to involve communities in the family planning program. Efforts of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) are summarized. PPFK provides all the instructional, educational, and communication functions for the family planning program. The Women's Associations, formed by the PPFK, were the 1st attempt to mobilize efforts of women on behalf of family planning and community development. The effort to integrate family planning and primary health care is currently under study.
Populi. 1977; 4(1):7-13.The suggestion at a U.N. Children's Emergency Fund staff meeting that 1/2 the organization's money should be spent on preventing the periodic crises, specifically, on family planning, and the other 1/2 on the miseries of living mothers and children was not accepted in 1958. Another chance for dealing with the problem came through the Population Council in New York. Assigned to East Asia, there was no budgetary support for population policies. Only in South Korea, at the suggestion of the Minister of Planning, was a policy for reducing the birthrate announced. It was the local branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation that undertook most of the training of the over 2000 field workers hired to visit the rural families especially and to establish a supply line for pills, which were a gift from Sweden. The methods used in order of adoption were the IUD, the oral contraceptive, the vasectomy, condom, and later, subsidized female sterilization. This began in 1963, and it is the 1st example of a population program that has grown until it is now 1 of the soundest anywhere. In East Asia every official program was preceded by activity by some private agency. These usually began in a single clinic to meet the urgent need of mothers who had more children than they could afford and care for. Going out and seeing the people in the various countries of East Asia revealed that they too were aware that they had more children than they could afford. In that 3/4 of the people in East Asia live in villages, it is important that every married couple be visited at home by someone who can explain what family planning is all about and how it will benefit the family and the village. An experienced midwife on a small motorcycle can carry with her all the equipment she heeds and attend to 30 or 40 cases in 1 day. Experience in East Asia suggests that any nation that really wants to can reduce its annual population growth rate.
Country Profiles. 1971 Apr; 12.The 1970 estimated population of Indonesia was 118,000,000, making it the fifth largest nation in the world. In 1961 the mean age at marriage for males was 24.3 years, for females 19.2 years. The birthrate is estimated at 43 to 45 per 1000, and the death rate at 17-19, causing a growth rate of about 2.8%. In 1970 about 50% of the population was literate. Rapid population growth is helping to restrict economic development, increasing unemployment problems, and negating expansion of social welfare programs. While the government of Indonesia supports family planning, it still maintains several pronatalist policies. Existing health facilities are utilized for family planning information and to stimulate referrals to clinic facilities. In 1969, 26,400 new acceptors chose IUDs, 15,000 chose orals, and 9,000 chose other methods. While in the past the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association conducted an equal role with the National Family Planning Institute. Because of grave economic problems Indonesia is now attaching high priority to the national family planning program to reduce the rate of population growth.