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Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations, 1983 Jul. 20 p. (Information for Action Resource Guide)Women in developing countries have special nutritional needs because of the tremendous physical burdens they bear in daily tasks, pregnancy, and lactation. Poverty and custom often cause these needs to go unmet. Poor maternal nutrition affects not only the mother's health, but also that of her children. While some elements of maternal nutrition are well known, discussion and experimentation continue on important nutritional and delivery issues. This Resource Guide, aimed at field staff who are not nutritionists, summarizes recent literature on this important topic. The annotations discuss both the causes and effects of maternal undernutrition. They also describe simple monitoring techniques to gauge maternal nutrition status and short-term programmatic interventions such as food fortification, food supplementation, vitamin distribution, and health education. The documents chosen synthesize important issues and experiences. The documents included are highly selective; some important literature and projects are not mentioned as this guide is mainly designed for busy program officials. Readers are encouraged to consult the references cited thorughout the guide for in-depth studies. Non-technical language is used throughout the text to facilitate understanding of the main concepts and issues.
In: National Council for International Health [NCIH]. New developments in tropical medicine. Washington, D.C., NCIH, 1982 Jan. 63-8.Death from acute diarrhea is most often due to dehydration which results from the excessive loss of water and salts from the extracellular fluid space. Clinical signs of progressive dehydration in children with diarrhea include dry mouth and tongue, absence of tears, sunken eyes or interior fontanelle (in infants), oliguria or anuria, decreased skin elasticity, muscle cramps and abdominal distention and eventually deep and rapid respiration, fast and weak pulse, hypotension, shock, and coma. Replacement of fluids and electrolytes, orally or intravenously, is the only effective treatment for dehydration; if a patient is given an adequate volume of oral glucose-electrolyte solution, diarrheal stool losses can be fully replaced and fluid balance maintained. The World Health Organization's oral rehydration (OR) formula consists of 3.5 g sodium chloride, and 20 g glucose; it has been proven to be safe and effective for all age groups, including neonates. The following steps should be taken in managing diarrheal dehydration: 1) evaluate the patient by rapid physical examination and history, 2) calculate oral fluid requirements, 3) after the intake of fluids, reassess and weigh patient, and 4) breast milk of 1/2-1/4 strength formula milk should be given and OR therapy should be continued as long as the child has diarrhea. The best means of supplying OR solution to most people would be to encourage home use, although problems exist with incorrect mixing of the solution and improper ingredients being used. OR packets can be produced locally. Cost will vary and distribution will require an effective system. Training personnel, village workers, and family workers, however, is the biggest challenge. Presentation of diarrhea requires environmental changes such as food, refrigeration, better personal hygiene, and improved housing, which are all costly. Efforts to promote breast feeding and increase health education about weaning practices and diarrhea prevention need to be increased.
Appropriate Technology for Health Newsletter. 1983; (12):1-22.Human nutrition is a dynamic science concerned with nutritional requirements, food composition, food consumption, food habits, the relationship between diet and health, and research in this field. This article touches on these aspects as they relate to prospective mothers and the care of their children, especially in the first 5 years of life, with a focus on developing countries. It deals with details of birth intervals, adequate breastfeeding, and adequate nutrition for both mother and child to help prevent malnutrition and deficiency diseases. Stress is laid on factors of children's growth such as body weight and height that primary health care workers must monitor while they work in the context of any culture. Programs for improved nutrition need to be drawn up with respect to the traditions and values of indigenous cultures. The article concludes with bibliographies dealing with 1) women, children and nutrition, 2) nutrition and primary health care, and 3) community development.