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In: Growth Promotion for Child Development. Proceedings of a colloquium held in Nyeri, Kenya, 12-13 May 1992, edited by J. Cervinskas, N.M. Gerein, and Sabu George. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1993 Feb. 33-42.UNICEF has been a vocal advocate of the widespread application of growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) for 10 years. The UNICEF Evaluation Office is an office within UNICEF responsible for conducting global thematic evaluations of a wide range of UNICEF activities. Evaluations involve reviewing literature, drafting terms of reference for evaluating activities in selected countries, and reviewing findings leading to policy changes for UNICEF at the global level. This paper describes progress made in conducting evaluations of GMP efforts coordinated together with UNICEF's Senior Nutrition Advisor. Data were collected for 1990-91 through focus groups and interviews in China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malawi, Thailand, Zaire, Zambia and subsequently analyzed. A summary is presented of actions reported to have been stimulated by the assessment and analysis of anthropometric data at household and community levels and constraints to actions identified. The following lessons learned were agreed upon during a review meeting: resources are short for GMP; programs should be implemented only where there is demand; GMP should no longer be promoted as an entry point to improve the health system or other sectors; existing, poorly done GMP programs waste resources and incur large opportunity costs; promoting growth for child development is important especially where growth faltering is prevalent; program management may take several forms; inabilities to analyze and respond are primary constraints to good GMP in most country programs; GMP can promote empowerment where the context allows; and GM data should not be analyzed under the auspices of the health sector in order to avoid bias.
Appropriate Technology for Health Newsletter. 1983; (12):1-22.Human nutrition is a dynamic science concerned with nutritional requirements, food composition, food consumption, food habits, the relationship between diet and health, and research in this field. This article touches on these aspects as they relate to prospective mothers and the care of their children, especially in the first 5 years of life, with a focus on developing countries. It deals with details of birth intervals, adequate breastfeeding, and adequate nutrition for both mother and child to help prevent malnutrition and deficiency diseases. Stress is laid on factors of children's growth such as body weight and height that primary health care workers must monitor while they work in the context of any culture. Programs for improved nutrition need to be drawn up with respect to the traditions and values of indigenous cultures. The article concludes with bibliographies dealing with 1) women, children and nutrition, 2) nutrition and primary health care, and 3) community development.