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Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Accounting Office, July 12, 1977. (ID-77-10) 66 p.This report focuses on the population situation in Pakistan, interrelationships in that country between socioeconomic development and population growth, and the effectiveness of U.S. AID-funded population-related activities. The population-connected program since 1973 has emphasized continuous motivation through fieldworkers, innundation of contraceptives, and a national policy of incentives to promote smaller families. None of these 3 areas has succeeded as planned and hoped. Although family planning efforts focused on provision of information, motivation, and delivery of services, the efforts fell short of targets. Reasons for this failure are: 1) social, economic, and cultural factors; 2) civil strife; 3) administrative problems; and 4) lack of a pro-family planning government policy. AID experience in Pakistan illustrates the need for proper evaluation data and a program which sets family planning programs within the larger context of socioeconomic development. It is recommended that AID no longer fund programs in countries where the atmosphere is not pro-family planning.