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Country Profiles. 1971 Apr; 12.The 1970 estimated population of Indonesia was 118,000,000, making it the fifth largest nation in the world. In 1961 the mean age at marriage for males was 24.3 years, for females 19.2 years. The birthrate is estimated at 43 to 45 per 1000, and the death rate at 17-19, causing a growth rate of about 2.8%. In 1970 about 50% of the population was literate. Rapid population growth is helping to restrict economic development, increasing unemployment problems, and negating expansion of social welfare programs. While the government of Indonesia supports family planning, it still maintains several pronatalist policies. Existing health facilities are utilized for family planning information and to stimulate referrals to clinic facilities. In 1969, 26,400 new acceptors chose IUDs, 15,000 chose orals, and 9,000 chose other methods. While in the past the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association conducted an equal role with the National Family Planning Institute. Because of grave economic problems Indonesia is now attaching high priority to the national family planning program to reduce the rate of population growth.
Summary: field trip report, Agency for International Development, Sri Lanka, (Colombo, Kalutara, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya), July 14 to August 2, 1982.
[Unpublished] 1982. 19 p.This report, prepared for the US Agency for International Developement (USAID), provides a description and assessment of the 4 social marketing programs operating in Sri Lanka, an inventory of the program's current contraceptive supplies, an estimate of the programs' supply requirements for 1983-85, and several recommendations for improving social marketing activities in the country. The assessment was made during a brief visit to Sri Lanka in the summer of 1982. Supply requirements were difficult to assess since there is little coordination between the programs. The programs are supplied by a variety of donor organizations, and record keeping is inadequate in some programs. The 4 programs are operated by 1) the Family Health Bureau (FHB) of the Ministry of Health, 2) the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASIL), 3) Population Services International (PSI), and 4) Community Development Services (CDS). The FHB program sells oral contraceptives (OCS) and condoms. During 1983-85, most of the program's supplies are expected to be obtained form the UN Fund for Population Activities. The FPASIL program was initiated in 1974 and distributes 10 brands of condoms and 3 brands of OCS. The program receives supplies from the International Planned Parenthood Federation and USAID. The PSI program trains Ayurvedic practitioners to distribute OCs and condoms. Most of the contraceptives are distributed free of charge but some are marketed. The program obtains its supplies from the FHB stocks and distributes them to the practitioners via the postal system. The Community Development Service is a privately run organization which conducts a variety of projects including the marketing of OCs and condoms through health workers and Ayurvedic practitioners. The program is supplied by several donors and is currently requesting condoms from USAID. Detailed information on the program is unavailable; however, it appears that the program overestimated its contraceptive needs for 1983. Between 1975-82, the proportion of married women of reproductive age relying on traditional methods increased from 17%-25%, the proportion relying on sterilization increased from 13%-17%, and the proportion using other modern methods increased from 11%-13%. In 1982, the proportion using OCs was 2.64% and the proportion using condoms was 3.19%. The marketing programs distribute primarily condoms and OCs. Estimated USAID delivery requirements for 1983 included 3,500,000 condoms for the FHB and FPASIL programs and 700,000 cycles of OCs for the FPASIL program. Requirements for 1984 could be estimated only for the FPASIL program and included 800,000 OC cycles and 8,500,000 condoms. The Ministry of Health should commission an outside review of all social marketing activities to identify appropriate and complementary functions for the 2 major programs (FPASIL and FHB) and a local review of the Ayurvedic practitioner training and distribution programs of CDS and PSI. Condoms provided by USAID for the FHB and CDS programs should differ in brand and packaging from those marketed by FPASIL. The progrms' service statistics and logistics should be improved. Research should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to the increase in the use of traditional contraceptive methods and to explore why only minimal increases in the use of modern contraceptives have occurred since 1975. Consideration should be given to setting up a central warehouse for stocking the nation's contraceptive supplies. All programs would then obtain their supplies from this central facilities. USAID assistance would be available for implementing a number of these recommendations.