Your search found 65 Results
Bethesda, Maryland, University Research Company, Quality Assurance Project, 2004 Dec. 47 p. (QAP / WHO Field Report)The traditional approach to malaria diagnosis has been examination by microscope of a thick blood smear from the individual suspected of being infected. In an attempt to provide a more rapid alternative, companies worldwide have developed malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Although RDTs can be effectively used in clinical settings by trained personnel, their greatest potential use is in rural areas with limited access to health and laboratory facilities. Using RDTs for diagnosis at the community level will shorten the delay between the onset of symptoms and the beginning of appropriate treatment. It will also slow development of resistance and lead to significant cost savings by avoiding unnecessary use of antimalarials. However, achieving a high level of sensitivity and specificity with RDTs in this context will require a product designed, labelled, and explained so that community health workers (CHWs) can use it accurately with minimal formal training and supervision. In partnership with theWHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, the Quality Assurance Project (QAP) carried out quality-design research in the Philippines and the Lao People's Democratic Republic to develop and test a generic RDT job aid, mainly pictorial, that could be adapted with little modification for use with different RDT products and in different cultural settings by health workers with low literacy skills and with little or no prior training in product use. (author's)
From camp to community: Liberia study on exploitation of children. Discussion paper on children's vulnerability to exploitation and abuse during the delivery of assistance in Liberia based on field studies carried out by Save the Children UK in Liberia.
Monrovia, Liberia, Save the Children UK, 2006. 20 p.The people of Liberia have experienced ongoing suffering over the past two decades as a result of war and displacement. Children have been drawn into this in many ways, such as recruitment into armed forces, separation from their families, witnessing atrocities, rape and torture. Thousands have been driven from their homes into exile into neighbouring countries or camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) within Liberia. This study focuses on children remaining in those camps and those who have recently been repatriated to their towns and villages of origin after the end of the war. Save the Children, along with many other non-governmental organisations, has been working alongside the Liberian government in the IDP camps. During the course of our work with children, Save the Children staff became aware that many children were agreeing to have sex with older men for money, food and other goods and favours. In order to document more closely the circumstances surrounding this issue, and to look at ways to improve Save the Children's delivery of assistance to better protect children against such exploitation, we instigated a study in four IDP camps and four communities with a high population of people returning from the camps. (excerpt)
The development of programme strategies for integration of HIV, food and nutrition activities in refugee settings.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2006 May. 34 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/06.21E)2003, The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) launched a joint effort to develop, through multi-site field research in refugee communities in Africa, a set of strategies for using food and nutrition-based interventions to support HIV prevention, care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. That initiative deliberately embodied a very high degree of collaboration, both among the agencies involved, but also with refugees themselves, to best capture lessons about how these sectors can be better integrated under the unique circumstances of refugee settings. This document discusses the process and findings of that initiative, whose value for best practices is found in the collaborative, field-driven methodology as well as in the findings and output. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. GDF / MSH Drug Management Consultant Training Workshop in Vietnam: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Nov 11. 12 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-076; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)More than eight million people become sick with Tuberculosis (TB) each year. TB continues to be a major international killer disease because of poor access to effective high quality medicines, irrational treatment decisions and behaviors, and counterproductive financial priorities by some national health systems that impede progress. Access to TB medicines is becoming less of a problem as both first and second-line TB treatments are made available to developing countries through global initiatives such as the Global TB Drug Facility (GDF) and the Green Light Committee (GLC) of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Stop TB department in Geneva. Since 2001 Management Sciences for Health (MSH) through the USAID-funded Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) program has collaborated with Stop TB to promote better overall TB drug management by GDF and GLC secretariats and by national TB control programs. RPM Plus activities include technical assistance to the GDF and the GLC to develop program monitoring tools, conduct TB program monitoring missions to recipient countries of GDF drugs, audits of monitoring missions conducted by partner organizations and training workshops on TB pharmaceutical management. GDF and GLC secretariats operate with minimal staffs and both depend greatly on partner organizations to carry out the necessary in-country work to make sure TB medicines are received, distributed and used according to guidelines. The number of countries receiving GDF and GLC support is ever increasing requiring even more assistance from partner organizations like MSH/RPM Plus. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Oct. 13 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-075; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)USAID, through its SO5 TB global objective, promotes TB pharmaceutical management activities through the RPM Plus program. The global activities support the DOTS scheme, a WHO initiative, documented to break the transmission of TB when implemented correctly by national TB programs (NTP). One of the five primary elements of the DOTS scheme is an uninterrupted supply of TB drugs. RPM Plus provides technical assistance to the following WHO/Stop TB organizations: The Global TB Drug Facility (GDF): established in 2001 to provide free grants of TB medicines to countries unable to satisfy their medicine needs and to serve as a source of good quality TB drugs for those countries having their own funds; The Green Light Committee (GLC): technical support group for the DOTS Plus program. Initiated by the WHO and its partners to promote the correct treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. The GLC makes medicines available to countries at affordable prices. As part of the global support RPM Plus also provides training in Pharmaceutical Management for TB at various World Health Organization consultant-training courses promoted by the Stop TB Department. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Workshops on TB pharmaceutical management: trip report, Sondalo, Italy and Tbilisi, Georgia, July 6-17, 2005.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Jul 31.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-073; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)A regular supply of TB medicines is one of the main components of the DOTS and DOTS Plus schemes. RPM Plus contributes to these schemes through facilitation of training workshops in collaboration with other TB partners. In July 2005 RPM Plus participated in two training activities for pharmaceutical management of tuberculosis in Sondalo, Italy in collaboration with World Health Organization and in Tbilisi, Georgia in collaboration with GOPA/German Development Agency. There were 12 participants in the Sondalo workshop and 9 participants in the Tbilisi workshop representing the entire Caucasus region. (author's)
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Oct 27. 19 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-068; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)Many national TB programs continue to encounter problems in providing quality TB medicines to patients when they need them. While lack of financial resources may be one constraint for procuring all TB medicines needed, national programs experience a host of other problems in pharmaceutical management. Strong pharmaceutical management is one of the key pillars to effective tuberculosis (TB) control; without appropriate selection, effective procurement, distribution, stock management and rational use of TB medicines and related supplies, individuals will not be cured of the disease and countries will not reach global targets. Management Sciences for Health's Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) program funded by USAID in collaboration with Stop TB Partnership's Global TB Drug Facility (GDF) housed at World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva conducted a workshop at the 36th International UNION World Congress on Tuberculosis and Lung Health on October 19th 2005 at Paris, France. This is the fourth year MSH and GDF have collaborated in such an event at the UNION congress due to popular demand by national TB programmes and their partners. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Roll Back Malaria East African Regional Network Partners Meeting, Kampala, Uganda, January 2005: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Feb.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-012; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)More than 90% of the clinical cases of malaria each year occur in Africa with much of the burden in children under five years of age. Pregnant women are especially at risk and strategies to decrease the morbidity in this group have been found to be effective. Strategies to address these challenges must be implemented in collaboration with programs aimed at integrated approaches to childhood illness and reproductive health. Management Sciences for Health's (MSH) Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) Program has received funds from USAID to develop strategies to implement malaria policies and to provide technical assistance in pharmaceutical management issues for malaria. RPM Plus is a key technical partner in the USAID Malaria Action Coalition (MAC), a partnership among four technical partners: The World Health Organization (WHO), working primarily through its Africa Regional Office (AFRO), the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the ACCESS Program of JHPIEGO and RPM Plus. RPM Plus has been working to improve pharmaceutical management for malaria in countries in Africa by identifying and addressing the causes of poor access, ineffective supply, and inappropriate use of antimalarials. RPM Plus has developed and applied tools to assess pharmaceutical management for malaria and has worked to provide technical assistance to countries by working with policymakers, researchers, managers, and providers in the public and private sectors to implement new and proven interventions. Significant among these interventions are Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies. (excerpt)
Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Meeting of the Consultative Group on Engaging the Private Sector for Child Health and Malaria, April 1-2, 2004: trip report.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Feb 11.  p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-010; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)As a partner of the Child Survival Partnership, RPM Plus, through support of the SO3 Child Survival portfolio, has continued to grow in support of exploring and promoting proven private sector interventions in support of child survival. RPM Plus' contributions have included participation in technical and advocacy meetings to develop and implement activities to further this agenda. Maria Miralles traveled to the London School of Tropical Hygiene and Health to attend a meeting of the Consultative Group on Engaging the Private Sector for Child Health and Malaria. The meeting took place April 1 and 2, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to participate in drafting an agenda for an international conference to be held later in the year to raise the awareness of donors, Ministries of Health, NGOs and key private sector entities of the value of collaboration to fight basic child health and malaria health problems. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. 32 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/98.25)The aim of this document is to point out the most important ways in which NGOs concerned with HIV/ AIDS and with the persons who have this infection in Latin America and the Caribbean help facilitate access to HIV-related drugs. During the XIth Conference on AIDS, the slogan "No greed, access to all!" was heard. The immediate reason was that the new AIDS drugs, the protease inhibitors, had a high price. This does not, of course, mean that access to all other AIDS-related drugs was easy. It was not, and it is not, especially for persons in developing countries. Thus, although lack of access to AIDS-related drugs is an old subject in developing countries, this topic aroused renewed interest when it affected developed countries. Access to treatment has become a global issue and has given rise to a new phase of global solidarity. (excerpt)
African Journal of AIDS Research. 2006 May; 5(1):49-60.This article explores key issues related to the agitation for human rights in Mozambique and its weak performance power. I define human rights in the context of HIV/AIDS as well as rights-based approaches to development and health. Based on fieldwork, I describe and analyse how human rights are received and applied in HIV/AIDS organisations in Mozambique. The central argument is that the weak performance power of human rights can be explained by the absence of their invocation, social-influence ability and social agitation, with reference made to Sen's (2004) theory of human rights. The article compares original findings to a rights-based approach to AIDS treatment in South Africa reported by Jones (2005). I argue that the successful agitation of human rights depends on skilful appropriation of a rights discourse adapted to the unique social and cultural context of Mozambique. Finally, the theory of transnational governmentality by Ferguson & Gupta (2002) is used to illustrate the challenges posed to an ethnography of human rights in an environment in which civil society and international organisations are simultaneously in alliance with and in opposition to the government. (author's)
Addressing HIV: do conferences and papers help? - human immunodeficiency virus. [Faire face au VIH : les conférences et les articles sur ce sujet sont-ils d'une grande aide ? - le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine]
UN Chronicle. 1998 Fall; 35(3): p..My initial reaction to the proposed title of the following article, "Addressing HIV: Do Conferences and Papers Help?," was strong and immediate. I also found myself sitting squarely on both sides of the fence: yes, of course, they help to expand people's minds and abilities to respond effectively to the epidemic, but there is so much wasted time and money involved in organizing most conferences. With the intention of exploring these reactions and putting them in an appropriate context, I decided to poll several colleagues, whom I have worked with, in defining and mobilizing the response to the worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The feedback I received on my mini-survey, which simply asked respondents to give me their immediate thoughts and feelings about the proposed title, filtered in from Canada, France, Senegal, South Africa and the United States. I have synthesized the general reactions and supplemented them with my own analysis of the question. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2001 Nov-Dec; (112):6-7.Humanitarian workers and displaced people are racing against time to build an estimated 6,000 mud brick shelters in Maslakh camp for the displaced just outside Herat, while across the country others are bracing themselves for the consequences of both the attack on Ahmed Shah Massoud, military leader of the anti-Taliban Alliance, and the tragic events in the United States. They have less than eight weeks before winter takes serious hold bringing snow and freezing winds to rake the valley. Another 4,000 shacks need repairs, and neither of these figures take into account accommodation for new displaced who continue to arrive at a rate of around 300 people a day - more than 8,500 in the month of August. However, all international UN staff are now being evacuated and many NGOs are doing the same. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2003. 36 p.The rapid needs assessment tool has been developed through collaborative work with an expert group, and pre-tested in four countries— Bangladesh, Brazil, Ghana, and Kenya. The current report presents the results of these assessments along with issues for consideration in the possible improvement of the needs assessment tool and the recommended process for using the tool. The four reports conclude that while condoms are widely available, and condom use is generally increasing, there is much that could be done to improve their distribution, their promotion, and their utilization, especially among key target groups that are at a high risk for HIV. In all four countries, a significant bifurcation of condom programming was found between the distribution of condoms through family planning services and the promotion and distribution of condoms by HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Little coordination or joint planning of condom programming was found. Overall, the rapid needs assessment tool was found to be valuable and easily adjusted to local circumstances. However, the current forms and process of the assessment tool have incorporated suggestions from field implementers as well as UNFPA collaborators that will strengthen its future implementation. The process of consulting key condom programming managers and policy makers led to the identification of problems and the next steps for solving them (which was an important objective of the tool). In fact, the rapid needs assessment’s bringing together all of the stake holders involved in condom issues for mutual discussion of problems and potential solutions proved effective in all four countries. This process of engagement, discussion, argument, and ultimately, consensus, was probably the most valuable aspect of the exercise. Despite strong efforts to create a rapid needs assessment exercise, in none of the countries could it be implemented within the time frame of the 7-10 days that was desired. While data gathering activities did not necessarily take a long time, the process of scheduling meetings and interviews with high level government officials required a far greater time frame than anticipated – approximately two months — due to travel schedules, local administrative crises, and holidays. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2000. Presented at the XVI FIGO World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Washington, D.C., September 3-8, 2000.  p.Maternal mortality and morbidity is a major problem health concern in many countries of the World health Organization South-East Asia Region. Despite concerted efforts by countries and the Regional Office to strengthen maternal health services, the Region still accounts for 40 per cent of the world's maternal deaths. Seven out of ten countries in the Region are still confronted with high maternal mortality ratios. The majority of people in these countries reside in rural areas where there is limited access to health facilities. It is not uncommon for women to receive no antenatal care and to deliver by themselves or be attended by a family member or other untrained person. Statistics reveal that more than half of the deliveries in the Region occur at home and most are attended by untrained persons. Many of the maternal deaths occur in homes, communities or during transport to health facilities. Maternal health services in many SEAR countries are inadequate. Special effort has, therefore, been given to address this problem for improved women's health in countries of the Region. It has long been recognized that the cornerstone of quality maternal health care is a person with adequate knowledge and skills in midwifery who lives in or close to the community where women live. Hence, various initiatives have been undertaken by WHO/SEARO to strengthen national capacity in the area of midwifery education and practice. (excerpt)
Challenges for communicable disease surveillance and control in southern Iraq, April-June 2003. Letter from Basrah.
JAMA. 2003 Aug 6; 290(5):654-658.The recent war in Iraq presents significant challenges for the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. In early April 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) sent a team of public health experts to Kuwait and a base was established in the southern Iraqi governorate of Basrah on May 3. We present the lessons learned from the communicable disease surveillance and control program implemented in the Basrah governorate in Iraq (population of 1.9 million) in April and May 2003, and we report communicable disease surveillance data through June 2003. Following the war, communicable disease control programs were disrupted, access to safe water was reduced, and public health facilities were looted. Rapid health assessments were carried out in health centers and hospitals to identify priorities for action. A Health Sector Coordination Group was organized with local and international health partners, and an early warning surveillance system for communicable disease was set up. In the first week of May 2003, physicians in hospitals in Basrah suspected cholera cases and WHO formed a cholera control committee. As of June 29, 2003, Iraqi hospital laboratories have con firmed 94 cases of cholera from 7 of the 8 districts of the Basrah governorate. To prevent the transmission of major communicable diseases, restoring basic public health and water/sanitation services is currently a top priority in Iraq. Lack of security continues to be a barrier for effective public health surveillance and response in Iraq. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. viii, 103 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Developpement Report No. 42)This report presents the findings of a 1993 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Programme Review and Strategy Development Mission to Zambia which sought to review the nation's program of population activities and to design a strategy for an expanded population program. The report opens by presenting country data highlights, a map, and a summary. Chapter 1 describes the population and development context in terms of demographic trends and of the political and socioeconomic context. Chapter 2 reviews the national population program through a look at population and development policy and plans, implementation of the population program, and past and present technical cooperation. The third chapter reviews the proposed national population program strategies and makes proposals for general strategies, sectoral strategies, and UNFPA assistance.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. viii, 109 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 39)This report presents the findings of a 1991 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Programme Review and Strategy Development Mission to Tanzania which sought to assess the nation's most urgent population needs and to make strategic proposals to deal with them. The report opens by presenting country data highlights, a map, and a summary. Chapter 1 describes the population and development context in terms of socioeconomic background, demographic trends, and population policy. Chapter 2 deals with population and development planning and trends in technical cooperation. The third chapter looks at implementation of the population program through a consideration of population and development; basic data collection; demographic training and research; maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP); AIDS; information, education, and communication; women, population, and development; youth; and population and the environment, urbanization, and migration. Chapter 4 presents the proposed national population program strategies for 1991-2001 and makes recommendations which lead to a balanced attention to the generation of demand for population program services and to the strengthening of institutional capacity to meet this demand. The Mission also developed strategies to meet the goals of the proposed UNFPA country program which are derived from the goals contained in the draft National Population Policy.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. ix, 115 p. (Technical Report No. 23)This report contains the results of a 1994 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) mission to Bangladesh undertaken on behalf of the UN's Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs. After presenting an executive summary, the report opens with an introductory chapter which describes the UNFPA Global Initiative, Bangladesh's population and family planning (FP) policies, policy strategies, the structure of the national FP program, the delivery of FP services, and donor assistance. Chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements and reviews the longterm projection methodology as well as projects to meet government objectives for the year 2005. The third chapter deals with logistics management in terms of distribution channels and contraceptive supply systems. Chapter 4 discusses various aspects of contraceptive manufacturing including taxes and duties and quality assurance. The next chapter looks at the role of nine nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector (private practitioners, private corporations, and the social marketing company). This chapter also covers the sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention activities undertaken by NGOs and coordination and collaboration between NGOs and the government. Chapter 6 is concerned with the use of condoms for STD/HIV/AIDS prevention, and chapter 7 provides a financial analysis of the allocations and expenditures of the government program, the World Bank-assisted program, the UNFPA-assisted program, and the program supported by the US Agency for International Development. This chapter also considers financial aspects of program performance, contraceptive requirements, contraceptive consumption and costs, and sustainability.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . ix, 78 p.The UN Population Fund, in cooperation with the Government of Ecuador, initiated a programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise in July-August 1989. The results are presented in sections such as national population policy, institutional structure, environment, women, research and training, education, communication, health nongovernmental organizations, and outside technical cooperation, each shown in the format issue, objective(s), and strategy. The Ecuadoran government views the growth rate of 2.8% as manageable, and has a qualitative population policy stated as political goals, with an addendum that addresses a few issues such as women in development. Adequate quantitative and focused data on population and development are lacking. Similarly, national, public, and private institutions are not coordinated and would benefit by regular meetings and information networks. Systematic integration of population and development must begin with policy formulation, planning, and research on rural and urban growth and migration. Health services, now emphasizing individual curative care, must be targeted to women, adolescents, and children, by integrating comprehensive family planning and primary health care. Poor performance of prior maternal-child health/family planning programs must be improved. Suggested strategies include building institutions, improving the information system, dispelling myths about contraceptive methods, informing people about the relationship between family planning and health, and broadening population education. There is potential for population education in literacy and informal education programs for workers and women, and there is a need for enlightenment of journalists and media communicators about population and migration issues. Efforts for improvement of women's lives are nonfocused and fragmented: information on these projects must be systematized, and a policy on women should be consolidated.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1993. viii, 63 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 27)From October 18 to November 8, 1991, a Programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) Mission from UN Population Fund (UNFPA) took place in Pakistan to assess the needs, priorities and plans of the country's population program. It also aimed to develop program strategies that will serve as the basis for the formulation of the UNFPA Country Programme in Pakistan for the period 1993-97. The report presents the findings of the PRSD Mission, based upon extensive consultations with senior officials of different agencies. It is noted that Pakistan has had a Population Welfare Programme for some 30 years, however, fluctuations in political support and frequent changes in administrative arrangements have hindered its progress. In view of the above, the PRSD Mission proposed several sectoral strategies with general strategy recommendations. Overall, the challenge identified for the future lies in sustaining the strong political commitment to, and strong leadership of, the Population Welfare Programme and translating it into effective program action at the field level.
[Unpublished] . 9 p.This paper provides guidance on key questions or indicators for assessing the value and efficiency of health communication programming. The material covered in this document comes from experiences of the Mass Communication and Mobilization Technical Support Group, which involved several UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) country offices and partner agencies. Over a 2-year period, UNICEF offices and partner agencies worked together to provide support for the development of programming that sought to harness the power of mass communications for gains in health status. In the course of the process, they also distilled some important elements for overall health communication programming such as partnerships, key activities, situation analysis and evaluation questions and case studies. The material that resulted is reflected in the report.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. , 38,  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)An intergovernmental team visited Tanzania on June 17-26, 1997, to review the experience of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) that received a grant from US Agency for International Development Africa Bureau to UN International Children Emergency Fund. During the visit, a series of interviews were conducted and the results are enumerated. The major finding of the visit was that health sector reform, recently initiated in Tanzania with an emphasis on decentralization and integration of certain functions at the central level, is leading to an reorganization in the management and delivery of immunization services. Moreover, the EPI was able to achieve and maintain high coverage rates despite severe challenges of economics, geography and infrastructure. However, the sustainability of the achievements of the EPI is challenged by three developments. First, the health reform sector is leading a substantially different role for EPI. Second, the introduction of special disease control initiatives requires intensified and highly organized activity for the successful implementation of National Immunization Days, as well as technical proficiency at all levels, creativity, and strong management for effective disease surveillance. Lastly, the assurance of a reliable supply of essential commodities remains an ongoing concern as donors shift their interests and modes of funding for supporting health activities. Team recommendations are enumerated.
[Dhaka], Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1995. 248 p.Bangladesh is one of the first 22 countries that have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and has been a signatory to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. In 1992, the country launched the National Program of Action to achieve the mid-decade goals for children in cooperation with the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). This book presents a compilation of reports concerning the conditions of the area in which the UNICEF was interested or had initiated some program. The articles are records of journalists' observations on simple peoples' perceptions of what is happening at their microlevel of life and living. In order for the contributions to be unbiased, a guideline was provided to each of the journalists as a sort of introduction and nothing more. Overall, the articles inspire more hope than they cause despair although both praises and accusations have been recorded.
[Development of a program for incorporation of child survival activities into the community distribution program, January 19-27, 1998] Elaboration du protocole pour l'insertion des activites survie de l'enfant dans la DBC, 19 au 27 janvier 1998.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. , 9,  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-Q-800-93-00032-00)The Director of Mali s Division of Family and Community Health (DSFC) requested technical assistance with regard to the information, education, and communication (IEC) aspects of a pilot project related to the child survival activities of the national program of community-based distribution (CBD). The program is part of a collaboration between the Minister of Public Health and the Aged (MSPPA) and the Population Council Project. The mission continued work started in November by Dr. Pacque, Dr. Toure, and Ms. McCharen. The goal of the trip to Bamako was to provide technical assistance in developing the IEC strategy as requested. BASICS/Washington asked the consultant/author to contact UNICEF about its relevant experience and to evaluate the situation with regard to using the Next Birth Technique (TAP). During her visit, the consultant finalized the French version of the report from the doctors former visit to Bamako in November. Data is still being collected in Koutiala, Kadiolo, and Koulikoro, while the TAP does not yet have central-level approval. Progress was also made on the protocol for integrating child survival activities into the CBD program. The consultant contributed her ideas during the discussion of the protocol elaborated by the Population Council. Recommendations and next steps are presented.