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Application of the factor analysis of correspondence to a fertility survey in Algeria. [Application de l'analyse factorielle de correspondance à une étude de fertilité en Algérie]
[Unpublished] 1972. Presented at the Seminar on the Role of Social Sciences in Demographic Activities, UNESCO, Paris, France, June 19-23, 1972. 39 p. (SHC.72/Conf.13/6)The so-called factor method of correspondence shows that it is possible to analyse globally and simultaneously all the large number of variables that come into consideration in a survey where the sample is relatively small, as is most often the case in investigations into, for example, fertility factors or the motives for migration. This method brings to light the highly logical structure and inner coherence of the replies formulated by the respondent without however going beyond a simple description of the facts and a classification of the variables. It also shows the wealth of material available through the so-called C.A.P. fertility surveys, which furnish us with information not only on fertility but also on daily life in the Third World. Educational status and the development of mass communication media unquestionably stand out as the principal variables in Algeria, where considerable efforts have in fact been made in this domain over the past few years. However, the results of these efforts have yet to influence the fertility rate, still one of the highest in the Third World. It is indeed only to be expected that there should be a time-lag between the occurrence of changes in economic and social conditions and the moment when the fertility rate begins in turn to be affected. (excerpt)
Family planning and national development: proceedings of the conference of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Bandung, 1-7 June 1969.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1969. 260 p.Add to my documents.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):44-62.40 years ago, one of the 1st tasks of the United Nations (UN) Population Division was a series of pilot studies demonstrating how governments could improve knowledge of demographic levels and trends using inadequate statistics: India, the Sudan, the Philippines, and Brazil demonstrated the application of survey research to fertility analysis. Similar studies illustrated the policy-making value of census data. William Brass suggested that maternity histories be used to assess fertility change. The Division participated in the 1st national family planning (FP) programs in India, and then helped develop a standard questionnaire to serve as the basis for internationally comparable knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys and sought to promote cross-national comparative research on fertility and FP. It also developed technics for estimating fertility in the absence of adequate birth statistics, including the reverse-survival method and ways of using stable population models. Model-based estimates of fertility have been made from World Fertility Survey data. The Division has provided data and studies to measure FP program success and to serve in improving service and acceptance rates, participating in evaluations of the administration of its national FP programs in India and Pakistan, and in research on cost/benefit and cost-effectiveness calculations for fertility reduction programs. A basic component was the measurement of the impact of FP programs on fertility: the Division carried out studies to evaluate alternative measurement methods, and prepared a manual. As fertility data quality improved, the Division prepared a review of knowledge on determinants of fertility, and hypothesized that a threshold must be crossed before development leads to fertility decline. The Division now produces periodic overviews of fertility conditions and trends, and studies on world levels and condtions of fertility, and has made findings on breast feeding effects, "unmet" FP needs, and the role of type of parental union, marital disruption, and education and occupation.
In: Asia. Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys Regional Workshop. Proceedings. [Columbia, Maryland], Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981 Feb. 4-7. (Contraceptive Prevalence Studies 2)This paper presents the views of the Agency for International Development (AID) on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, focusing on why the agency supports them, what the agency wants to get out of them, and how they fit into the AID program. Both the developing countries and the donor community needed data bases that serve several purposes. There was a clear need for data on what was happening in countries with active family planning programs. Fairly substantial resources were being programmed into efforts to slow population growth, and it was important to ensure that these resources were used effectively and efficiently. There were also obvious time pressures. The longer the delay before slowing population growth, the more serious the problem would become. Clearly, timely data were needed. To respond to the varied data needs, early in its history AID's Population Office initiated a broad program of support for data collection, including censuses, surveys, civil registration systems, and family planning program statistics. There was also support for efforts to ensure that these data were evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted to facilitate their use. In 1971, AID along with the UN and the International Statistical Institute, began to develop what became the World Fertility Survey (WFS). The effort was launched more as a research than an administrative tool. During the course of developing the WFS, there was much reluctance on the part of many demographers and social scientists to clarify the link between fertility change and family planning action programs. In 1976, WFS carried out some field trials on a series of questions on perceived family planning availability and accessibility and thereafter developed a set of questions on availability, which were added to the core questionnaire. When the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) project was initiated with Westinghouse, AID asked that availability information be collected for all methods requiring a source. These data have been very valuable as a means of gaining insight into the role of availability in contraceptive use. The CPS was specifically designed to collect a limited set of highly program-relevant data quickly and to make these data available to program administrators and policy makers. First, CPS has been an important data source for documenting trends in contraceptive knowledge and use. Second, since many of the WFS, as well as the CPS, have included questions on perceived availability of family planning, it is possible to examine trends in availability. Regarding how the CPS might be improved, the CPS Workshop provides a good opportunity for an exchange of ideas. A description of the Workshop objectives are outlined.
New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Sep. 5,  p. (Fertility Determinants Research Note No. 5)One of the notable features of population studies in the past 35 years has been the increasing reliance on sample surveys as the primary source of demographic data. Past surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of contraception in developing countries are important resources. These early KAP and fertility surveys, conducted 10 or more years ago, provide benchmarks for the study of how group differentials in behavior and attitudes evolve with time. Together with recent surveys, they help to monitor the pace and nature of the transition from 1 demographic regime to another within societies. Attempts to retrieve the earlier data produced constructive lessons and recommendations on how to safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 3 recommendations emerge that will help safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 1) Develop standards of documentation and maintenance, including how long questionnaires are to be retained, now much of the detail of sampling design should be saved, what constitutes an adequate description of interviewer characteristics and instruction. 2) Arrange for public access and the mechanisms to promote it. Funds should be budgeted for this purpose from the outset. Surveys that are still not generally available after a reasonable number of years lose much of their value and deprive the demographic community of a valuable resource. 3) Create structures to preserve and disseminate KAP and fertility surveys. The need for this is greatest for surveys not associated with large international programs. In all cases arrangements for longterm preservation must be made. Tables are included which describe 3rd world countries in which KAP or fertility surveys were conducted before 1981, and an inventory of pairs of surveys for potential use in conparative and over-time analysis.
Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 1976; (8):1-15.This article assesses the extent to which demographic research has been affected by the World Population Conference at Bucharest. The broadening of the scope of the population concept brought about at Bucharest is discussed and 7 major points established there are listed. The 3 main sources of demographic data, censuses, vital statistics, and surveys, are examined to determine to what extent they are adaptable to the need for enlargement called for by the Conference. It is suggested that a "demographic observatory" be established to monitor not just fertility but all the population variables as set forth in the World Population Plan of Action. Needed research in fertility studies, morbidity and mortality, international migration, internal migration and rural development, population and development, projections, integration of population in economic planning, and other areas is indicated. In the future, attempts to explain population phenomena will need to go beyond demography itself, and this will call for true interdisciplinary cooperation in place of narrow specialization. Reorganization of research is needed, and a determined effort is necessary to establish new directions while protecting the freedom, scientific neutrality, and structures of the disciplines.
Kuala Lumpur, IPPF East and South East Asia and Oceania Region, Nov. 1976. 60 p.Add to my documents.
Voorburg, Netherlands, International Statistical Institute, . 143 p.During 1981 no new countries were recruited to the World Fertility Survey (WFS) program; 28 developing countries are still active in the project and 20 developed countries have participated. At the end of the year, 2 countries were at the fieldwork stage, 11 were involved in data processing, and 29 had completed their First Country Report. The London based WFS staff continues to provide assistance and coordination to the developing country surveys. A workshop evaluating the quality of WFS surveys was completed in early 1981; so far 28 country surveys have been evaluated, 17 through workshops. Work on the 11 illustrative analysis studies and 4 cross national summaries has also been completed. WFS continues to provide data processing support for country surveys; the format of the WFS dictionary has been extended to allow flexible description of raw data files as well as analysis files. During 1981 standard tapes have been prepared or revised for 13 country surveys, bringing the total to 28. A total of 167 data sets were distributed during 1981 to support research projects in different parts of the world. A handbook providing information on the data archive has been made available. WFS publications during the year comprised 9 scientific reports, 2 cross national summaries, the annual report for 1980 and a report entitled "The World Fertility Survey and its 1980 Conference" by E. Grebenik. During 1981 summaries of First Country Reports were published: 4 in English, 5 in French, and 1 in Spanish. WFS work in data analysis is carried out in close coordination with the UN's population division and the UN Statistical Office. On March 31, 1981, Dr. Milos Macura relinquished the post of Project Director and Dr. Dirk J van de Kaa assumed his duties in July 1981 after Mr. V. C. Chidambaran had served as acting director. The report provides details of the current situation of: 1) the surveys in each country, 2) technical assistance and coordination, 3) country reports, 4) data archives, and 5) meetings such as the Program Steering Committee, the Andean Seminar, the Seminar on the Analysis of WFS Family Planning Module, and the IUSSP 12th General Conference. An appendix provides a table illustrating the details of participation of developing countries in the WFS.
New York, N.Y./Edinburgh, Scotland, Churchill Livingstone, 1983. xi, 100 p.This manual describes the methods commonly used to measure and interpret trends in the fertility of populations when adequate data are available from birth registration systems, censuses, and sample surveys. Information is presented on period measures of fertility, cohort measures of fertility, the correlates of fertility, and fertility surveys. The volume was motivated by the belief that population policies and programs must be based on appropriate and accurate measures of fertility, valid interpretations of fertility trends and differentials, and informed conjecture about their future direction. It is intended as a teaching aid for statisticians in public health programs, health planners, health administrators, other health professionals, and government officials involved in the analysis of national fertility data. The manual is also intended to serve as a resource for training activities and refresher courses in health statistics sponsored by the World Health Organization.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1982 Oct. 46 p. (PHN Technical Notes RES 3)This paper uses data from the World Bank and UNFPA sponsored survey on the determinants of fertility decline in Sri Lanka. The multivariate analysis shows that whereas the traditionally strong influences on fertility, and hence contraceptive use, such as education, age, and labor force participation still exist among the older women, changes in the nature of delivery of family planning services are making these socioeconomic factors less salient among younger women, as well as among subgroups of older women. (author's)