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Children. 2018 May 4; 5(5)Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000(-)2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO) weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan.
Maintaining momentum to 2015? an impact evaluation of interventions to improve maternal and child health and nutrition in Bangladesh.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2005 Aug.  p. (World Bank Report No. 34462)Improving maternal and child health and nutrition is central to development goals. The importance of these objectives is reflected by their inclusion in poverty-reduction targets such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Bangladesh’s Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, supported by major development partners, including the World Bank and the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID). This report addresses the issue of what publicly supported programs and external assistance from the Bank and other agencies can do to accelerate attainment of such targets as reducing infant mortality by two-thirds. The evidence presented here relates to Bangladesh, a country that has made spectacular progress, but needs to maintain momentum in order to achieve its own poverty-reduction goals. The report addresses the following issues: (1) What has happened to child health and nutrition outcomes and fertility in Bangladesh since 1990? Are the poor sharing in the progress being made? (2) What have been the main determinants of maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes in Bangladesh over this period? (3) Given these determinants, what can be said about the impact of publicly and externally supported programs—notably those of the World Bank and DFID—to improve health and nutrition? (4) To the extent that interventions have brought about positive impacts, have they done so in a cost-effective manner? (excerpt)
Globalization and women's and girls' health in 192 UN-member countries convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
International Journal of Social Economics. 2016 Jul 11; 43(7):692-721.Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the ratification of the United Nations' (UN's) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and women's and girls' health outcomes using a unique longitudinal data set of 192 UN-member countries that encompasses the years from 1980 to 2011. Design/methodology/approach - The authors focus on the impact of CEDAW ratification, number of reports submitted after ratification, years passed since ratification, and the dynamic impact of CEDAW ratification by utilizing ordinary least squares (OLS) and panel fixed effects methods. The study investigates the following women's and girls' health outcomes: Total fertility rate, adolescent fertility rate, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, neonatal mortality rate, female life expectancy at birth (FLEB), and female to male life expectancy at birth. Findings - The OLS and panel country and year fixed effects models provide evidence that the impact of CEDAW ratification on women's and girls' health outcomes varies by global regions. While the authors find no significant gains in health outcomes in European and North-American countries, the countries in the Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Africa, Caribbean and Central America, South America, Middle-East, Eastern Asia, and Oceania regions experienced the biggest gains from CEDAW ratification, exhibiting reductions in total fertility, adolescent fertility, infant mortality, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality while also showing improvements in FLEB. The results provide evidence that both early commitment to CEDAW as measured by the total number of years of engagement after the UN's 1980 ratification and the timely submission of mandatory CEDAW reports have positive impacts on women' and girls' health outcomes. Several sensitivity tests confirm the robustness of main findings. Originality/value - This study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the multifaceted relationships between CEDAW ratification and female health outcomes. The study significantly expands on the methods of earlier research and presents novel methods and findings on the relationship between CEDAW ratification and women's health outcomes. The findings suggest that the impact of CEDAW ratification significantly depends on the country's region. Furthermore, stronger engagement with CEDAW (as indicated by the total number of years following country ratification) and the submission of the required CEDAW reports (as outlined in the Convention's guidelines) have positive impacts on women's and girls' health outcomes.
Nature. 2011 Jun 30; 474(7353):579.Add to my documents.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2010 Apr.  p.The World Bank’s five-year plan highlights ways in which to help poor countries reduce their high fertility rates and prevent the widespread deaths of their mothers and children. In endorsing its Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010-2015, the Bank warned that family planning and other reproductive health programs that are vital to poor women had fallen off the development radars of many low-income countries, donor governments, and aid agencies.
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2007 Oct 9; 177(8):846.Recently the World Health Organization reported 2005 fertility rates per woman and gross national incomes per capita from its 193 member countries. Figure 1 shows these data for the 20 countries with the highest and lowest fertility rates for which gross national income data were available and for the G7 countries (Canada, United States, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan) for comparison. Countries with the highest fertility rates per woman tended to have a much lower gross national income per capita than countries with the lowest fertility rates. They also tended to be or to have recently been politically unstable. (The fertility rates per woman for Timor-Leste and Afghanistan were 7.8 and 7.3 respectively but are not included in Figure 1 because data for their gross national income were not available.) A fertility rate per woman of just over 2.0-2.1 is recognized as being necessary to maintain a country's population size. Countries with a rate below this, which included most of the G7countries, must rely on immigration if this is their intent. (full text)
Notes from the Field. 2002 Jan; (12): p..Paraguay is usually overlooked by international donors because it's geographically isolated and dwarfed by its large, high-needs neighbors like Bolivia, Brazil and Argentina. But the reproductive health needs in Paraguay are as great if not greater than in other countries. It has the highest fertility rate in South America, 4.7 [children per woman], teen pregnancy is high, and maternal mortality is also high. CEPEP is managing to do a lot with few resources. In addition to four of its own clinics, it works with independent "associated clinics," institutions and professionals to increase access to sexual and reproductive health services and contraceptives. When looking at quality, CEPEP distinguishes between "calidad" and "calidez," and emphasizes both. "Calidad" refers to the quality of clinical procedures, infection prevention, etc., and "calidez" [warmth] refers to client satisfaction issues like courtesy, expedience and clinic environment. Through this focus on quality, CEPEP hopes to increase clinic attendance and sustainability. It seems to be working: One of the clients I spoke with had traveled four hours to get to the clinic. She said there was a Ministry of Health clinic closer, but she chose to come to CEPEP. (excerpt)
From Rome 1954 to Rome 2005 and beyond. Introductory remarks on the past and future of population problems.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):49-68.50 years on, Rome is once again at the centre of the scientific, and therefore political, debate on population problems. It is a great pleasure and a great honour to introduce here, in this prestigious Academy together with a small but highly qualified scientific and technical/political community, a Conference in order to discuss population problems with a holistic approach. An Irish colleague wrote to congratulate me on this initiative, highlighting how it will once again make it possible to discuss substantial population-related problems on an international level. Indeed when examining political and operative directives, this subject has been frequently neglected in the recent sessions of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, whose once large number of experts participation is gradually falling. (excerpt)
Fertility rates and population projections: why the United Nations low population projection is best. Draft.
[Unpublished] 1994 Mar 23.  p.This paper stems from study on world food needs in the next century. Of course in a study of this nature population projections are essential. The writer used the United Nations medium population projections, illustrated in figure 1, as an authoritative source. Like everyone else of whom we are aware, the author assumed that the United Nations "medium" projection is the best estimate, in the sense of highest probability, in the opinion of the United Nations population experts. Since the medium projection closely corresponds to the World Bank's population projection (they provide only one) through to 2025 the assumption is further justified--and, apparently, supported by the independent opinion of the World Bank experts. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], BRinging Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE], 2004 Aug.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-03-00004-00)World population statistics tell a powerful story about how people and nations around the world are changing. The data can be used to gauge progress in a particular country, make comparisons across countries, and help project future trends. This policy brief provides highlights of PRB’s 2004 World Population Data Sheet, focusing on key demographic and health trends that are shaping the 21st century. The world’s population is growing substantially every year, but the pace of growth varies dramatically from one region to another. Some countries have aging populations and, as a result, face future population decline, while others still have young and rapidly growing populations. Each situation is associated with its own set of social, economic, environmental, and political challenges. In much of the developing world, policymakers and researchers are monitoring two major demographic and health trends—the trend toward smaller families and the progression of the AIDS epidemic. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2003 Mar.  p.The newly released 2002 revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects shows that, by the year 2050, 75 percent of all countries in the less developed regions of the world will experience below-replacement fertility — that is, a fertility rate lower than 2.1 children per woman. This estimate is the UN's medium variant and highlights a lower world population in 2050 than the UN's 2000 Revision did: 8.9 billion instead of 9.3 billion. About half of the 400 million difference in these projected populations results from an increase in the number of projected deaths, the majority stemming from higher projected levels of HIV prevalence. The other half of the difference reflects a reduction in the projected number of births, primarily as a result of lower expected future fertility levels. World population, now at 6.3 billion, is growing at a rate of 1.2 percent annually, meaning an additional 77 million people each year. This is considerably slower than the peak annual growth rate of over 2 percent, reached in the early 1970s. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1973 Jul 9.  p. (SHC/WS/297)The paper entitled "The Impact of Education on Fertility Patterns: An Analytical Survey of Research Findings" reviews findings on the relationship between education and fertility in developed and developing countries. It presents age-education-specific fertility data for selected countries and discusses problems in data collection and analysis. The use of models an statistical techniques in the analysis of the relationship between education and fertility is considered in the final section. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1972 Dec 4.  p. (SHC/WS/276)This present study attempts to review the state of knowledge today on the relationship between educational attainment and fertility, and to list some of the major institutions conducting research in the area of human fertility, which takes into account the effect of education on fertility. Finally, a bibliography of recent literature (in English) dealing with education and fertility, is given here. (excerpt)
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2001 Nov; 7(6):956-965.The infant mortality rates for 1978 and 1998 of 16 Arab countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region were studied. The data were extracted from World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund sources. The impact of demographic, social, perinatal care and economic indicators on infant mortality rates in 1998 was studied using Spearman rank coefficient to detect significant correlations. All countries, except Iraq, showed a sharp decline in rates from 1978 to 1998. Infant mortality rates were directly related to population size, annual total births, low birth weight and maternal mortality ratios. Also, infant mortality rates were inversely related to literacy status of both sexes, annual gross national product per capita and access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities. (author's)
Journal of Biosocial Science. 2003 July; 35(3):335-351.Improved child health and survival are considered universal humanitarian goals. In this respect, understanding the nutritional status of children has far-reaching implications for the better development of future generations. The present study assessed, first, the nutritional status of children below 5 years using the three anthropometric measures weight-forage, height-for-age and weight-for-height in two states of India, Kerala and Goa. Secondly, it examined the confounding factors that influence the nutritional status of children in these states. The NFHS-I data for Kerala and Goa were used. The results showed that the relative prevalence of underweight and wasting was high in Kerala, but the prevalence of stunting was medium. In Goa, on the other hand, the relative prevalence of wasting and underweight was very high, and that of stunting was high. Both socioeconomic and family planning variables were significantly associated with malnutrition in these states, but at varied levels. The study recommends more area-specific policies for the development of nutritional intervention programmes. (author's)
2003 world population data sheet of the Population Reference Bureau. Demographic data and estimates for the countries and regions of the world.
Washington, D.C., PRB, 2003. 13 p.With every passing year, prospects for population growth in the more developed and less developed countries grow more dissimilar. On this year’s Data Sheet, the total fertility rate (TFR) for the more developed countries is a mere 1.5, compared with 3.1 in the less developed countries—3.5 if outlier China’s large statistical effect is removed. But the passage of time, as well as the difference in fertility rates, is ensuring that the two types of countries can expect to continue to have different population sizes in the future. The decline in Europe’s fertility rates is not a recent phenomenon; those rates have been low for quite some time. As a result, there have been long-term changes to age distributions in Europe, and this “youth dearth” is now taking on a more significant role in the near certainty of population decline. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
In: The Population Debate: Dimensions and Perspectives, Vol. I. N.Y., U.N., 1975, pp. 3-44. (Population Studies, No. 57)Add to my documents.
New York Times on the Web. 2002 Mar 12;  p..According to a UN study, women around the world are choosing to have fewer children, confounding long-held predictions of a global population of 10 billion by the end of the century. In the past few decades, however, massive amounts of declines in birth rates were observed in the large, developing nations that were driving the growth. Countries belonging to the intermediate level fertility group, where women have between 2.1 and 5 children each, accounts for about 43% of the world's population. Nevertheless, it is suggested that those countries are heading toward a fertility rate of 1.85 children for each woman by 2050, a significant decrease that in India alone would represent 85 million fewer people. If that is the case, the world population would ultimately begin to shrink, though not in this century.
Jakarta, Indonesia, National Family Planning Coordinating Board [BKKBN], 2000. 13 p. (Technical Report Series Monograph No. 98)This paper quantifies the effects of certain demographic factors in fertility decline in Indonesia during the periods of 1971-80, 1980-90, and 1990-97. Using the UN standardization approach, the role of the three main demographic components such as the age structure; marital status; and marital fertility is assessed in the decline of the crude birth rate and general fertility rate. Specific age groups are also identified that are responsible for individual contributions of each of the above factors to the decline in fertility. Overall, the findings revealed that among the three components considered, marital fertility seemed to play the most important role in fertility decline during that period. The marital status component contributed less than marital fertility, while age structure had an offsetting effect on the decline in fertility, except for the period 1990-97, in which the age structure was the second biggest contributor. The biggest contribution of marital fertility came from the age groups 20-24 and 25-29, which may reflect the postponement of age at first marriage.
POPLINE. 2001 Mar-Apr; 23:3.Nearly 1 in 3 children born in Sierra Leone's diamond-rich Kenema district died last year before turning 1 year old, according to a recently released report. Issued by Sierra Leone's Health and Sanitation Ministry and the International Rescue Committee (IRC), the report came on the heels of a mortality survey in the West Central African country. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) previously reported that Sierra Leone's infant mortality level of 157 newborn deaths per 1000 births is the world's highest. The new study, however, demonstrates that the rate in Kenema is almost twice that level. Robin Nandy of IRC called the findings “a public health catastrophe”. Additionally, the survey revealed an overall death rate for Kenema that was 3 times the normal level for sub-Saharan Africa--44 deaths a year per 1000 people. UNICEF estimated in 1999 that the overall mortality rate in Sierra Leone was much lower--24 deaths per 1000 people--though even that number is considered among the world's highest mortality rates. Most of the deaths were attributed to common illnesses that are easily treatable, with ailments involving fever proving to be the most fatal. Malaria was the leading cause of death, followed by diarrheal disease and respiratory infections. Nandy called the findings worse than anticipated since Kenema was fairly peaceful last year, compared to considerable fighting the year before. She said that IRC assumes death rates are even higher in areas where conflict continues. With a fertility rate of 6.3 children per woman, Sierra Leone is on course to double its population of 5.2 million in only 26 years and triple its human numbers in 50 years. (full text)
Washington, D.C., Communications Consortium Media Center, 1998. , 10 p.This paper discusses the world's demographic trends and generational issues using a pyramid as a traditional graphic portrait of the human population. For centuries, the pyramid of human population was described to have a large base representing large numbers of babies born, a narrowing midsection in which many died in early childhood and less rapidly with age, rising to its peak depicting few survivors past age 65. In this world the majority of the people are children, most whom have died before reproducing. The elderly were generally also dependent and unproductive members of the society, so both the top and bottom of the pyramid relied for support on people in the middle: the working-age population. After World War II world population was transformed. The picture of the pyramid changes into a pillar in industrialized countries (more people reaching older ages), while in developing countries the base continues to widen (more babies born). The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) correctly attributes the decline in fertility rates in both sets of countries to increasing education and a broader set of life choices for women in particular, wider distribution of reliable and inexpensive contraception, and the ongoing shift from country to urban living. Furthermore, the ICPD has recommended a Program of Action to be implemented in order to achieve global population growth stability.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.The reactions by the Malaysian delegation at the 32nd session of the Commission on Population and Development on March 23, 1999 in New York are presented. The delegation feels that the reports given at the Commission are historical documents, as they serve as a benchmark for countries at the close of the century. The Malaysian delegate, Dr. Raj Karim, stresses her concern about Malaysia as one of the many countries undergoing a demographic transition. A rapid progress of urbanization and industrialization together with improvement in basic social services and health care and the reduction of poverty has led to lowering of its maternal and child mortality and fertility rates and increased its average life expectancy. The Malaysian delegation seriously considers resources and priority needs as critical issues. Malaysia has urged the secretariat to address these issues in its analyses of population and development trends. In her concluding remarks, Dr. Raj Karim emphasizes that the Malaysian delegation strongly supports the Program of Work of the Population Division for the 2000-2001 biennium and congratulates the Commission for its timely analysis and dissemination of information.
[Unpublished] 1992.  p.This report presents the 1992 revision of the UN world population projections to 2025 for its high, medium, and low variants and supplemental statistical data (fertility, infant death, birth, death rates; life expectancy; and dependency ratio. Data is tabulated for each of 240 countries of the world, regional totals, and world totals. Statistics are provided quinquennially during 1960-95 with projections quinquennially during 2000-25. Statistics give population size and annual rate of change.