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  1. 1

    Fourteenth annual report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985 Dec. ix, 219 p.

    In response to mandates of the 1984 International Conference on Population, WHO's Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction has established new Task Forces, strengthened the research capabilities of institutions in developing countries, intensified research on steroidal contraception, expanded attention to the social determinants and consequences of fertility, and increased collaboration with other major international programs engaged in research in human reproduction. The bulk of this annual report includes a technical review of the activities and plans of the Program's 9 Task Forces: Tasks Force on Long-Acting Systemic Agents; Task Force on Postovulatory Methods; Task Force on Vaccines; Task Force on Plants; Task Force on Male Methods; Task Force on Infertility; Task Force on Safety and Efficacy; Task Force on Behavioral and Social Determinants of Fertility; and work in the strengthening of research resources. Each Task Force report is presented in 4 major sections: the field of interest, comprising a brief review of the relevant technical subjects; the strategic plan, explaining how work is structured and scheduled; collaboration with other programs; and activities of the Task Force through the end of 1985. Also included in this report are sections on resources for research and management and financial matters. A Committee on Resources for Research has just been formed to review strategies for strengthening research resources in developing countries.
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  2. 2

    Human rights from humanitarian perspectives: an international comparative appraisal of state laws on and practice of abortion and sterilization as means of family planning.

    Gutto SB

    Nairobi, Kenya, University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies, 1980 Mar. 35 p. (Discussion Paper No. 269; KE/01316/00)

    This study describes and analyzes the evolution and establishment of family planning as an internationally recognized aspect of human rights both at the level of customary social state practices and as a response to international promotion through the UN and agencies. 2 core themes of the study are: the development of a coherent conceptual linkage between family planning and human rights based on humanitarian considerations; and the demonstration of the existence, scope, and limitations of customary practices of family planning, through abortion and sterilization, among a wide spread of states within different levels of technological development, differential political philosophies, and organized religious culture. The 1st major international expression of the need to raise family planning to the status of an international human right was made by 12 heads of state under the Declaration on Population of 10 December 1966, a unilateral declaration later signed by 18 more states. In 1969 the UN General Assembly declared that families should have "the knowledge and means necessary to enable them to exercise their right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children." By formal legal reasoning, the right of family planning became an international right, and only its practice needs to be encouraged and evaluated. The concept and the right of family planning is not an abstract construct that is limited to the distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) alone, and it is not simply confinable to the reduction of population growth rates alone nor is it merely a tool used for the purpose of increasing fertility rates. What it does is to create conditions for rational, premeditated decision making as regards procreation so that childbearing no longer remains the domain of mystical gods to decide for human beings. At another fundamental level it helps to provide mothers an opportunity to realize and maintain health standards they decide. In sum, it facilitates the right to life and human dignity. To measure the extent to which the newly emerged right of family planning, both at international and national levels, have developed and is practiced, attention was directed to the practice of states. Differences emerged among state practices, but a fundamental fact regarding the universality of the practice, especially through abortion and sterilization, has been established. There is noticeable general movement towards reform of laws and practice to make them conform with the realization of the right of family planning, beginning with instances of therapeutic, eugenic, socioeconomic, and other apparent humanitarian dictates. This is particularly favorable to the thesis of this study, i.e., that the practice of states is not useful only for academic reasons, but more fundamentally that state practice indirectly acts as models that influence other state practices and mold the international standards.
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  3. 3

    Report on A.I.D.'s population program assistance in relation to envisaged worldwide needs.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Unpublished, Nov. 1970. 28 p. plus tables

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