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New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 36 p. (Report)The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 476 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)The Expert Group on Fertility and Family was one of 4 expert groups assigned the task of examining critical, high priority population issues and, on that basis, making recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action. The report of the Expert Group consisted of 6 topics: 1) fertility response to modernization; 2) family structure and fertility; 3) choice with respect to childbearing, 4) reproductive and economic activity of women, 5) goals, policies and technical cooperation, and 6) recommendations. Contained in this report are also selected background papers with discuss in detail fertility determinants such as modernization, fertility decision processes, socioeconomic determinants, infant and child mortality as a ddeterminant of achieved fertility in some developed countries, the World Fertility Survey's contribution to understanding of fertility levels and trends, fertility in relation to family structure, measurement of the impact of population policies and programs on fertility, and techinical cooperation in the field of fertility and the family.
Population and the role of the family, statement made at the Scientific Conference on Family and Population, sponsored by the International Union of Family Organizations, Hanasaari, Espoo, Finland, 26 May, 1984.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 112)The family is the fundamental guarantor of the past, present and future of society. The social norms and values of a culture are transmitted from generation to generation through the family. Through the family, fresh influences are modulated and filtered and eventually harmonized with accepted norms. It is a highly influential instrument of social change. The family is also the guardian of social stability. In many developing countries the major social change affecting the family has been the fall in fertility which has been going on since the mid-1960s and has become a definite trend. The implication of lower fertility is that the nuclear family will become more socially significant than the extended family. This raises questions such as the role and care of the elderly, and women's role as workers outside the home. 2 main considerations are imbedded in the recommendations to the International Conference on Population in 1984: 1) that free choice in the size and spacing of the family is a basic human righ and that access to informatin and the means of family planning is a part of that right; 2) that it is the right and responsibility of governments to develop and implement population policies in the context of national development goals. These twin principles of respect for the rights of individuals and respect for national sovereignty are fundamental to all international agreements and action in population.
In: United Nations. Department of International and Social Affairs. Demographic transition and socio-economic development. New York, UN, 1979. 5-30. (Population Studies no. 65; ST/ESA/SER.A/65)The UN/UN Fund for Population Activity (UNFPA) Group Meeting on Demographic Transition and Socioeconomic Development, meeting in Istanbul, Turkey over the April 27-May 4th, 1977 period, examined the following: the current theoretical development relating to socioeconomic change to fertility; the variables and indicators used in the analysis; the sources of data and their utilization; the different analysis techniques and their limitations; and a sample of empirical studies. The discussion covered a wide range of issues and cut across the boundaries of the various disciplines. An attempt is made in this report of the proceedings to synthesize the various views and to highlight unresolved issues. The Group Meeting focused attention on the development of a conceptual framework that could serve as a general guide in assessing the impact of development on fertility. Due to the complex nature of the relationships examined, it was decided that the conceptual framework should focus more on basic determinants at the main points of control in demographic behavior. A general cost-benefit framework is used as the guiding paradigm for discussion. The level of fertility on any society is viewed as an outcome of systematic individual decision processes that are constrained by 3 sets of factors, representing various levels of aggregation: the individual's own personality characteristics and disposition, the socioeconomic context, and the normative context and institutional structure. The discussion attempted to examine these 3 sets of factors as they relate to fertility and as they change during the process of socioeconomic development. A social context for individual behavior is outlined as part of the conceptual framework; it defines 3 relative social positions. To understand the social structure it is necessary to concentrate on social classes and their roles in the ownership and management of the production process, social groups, and shifts in the levels and distribution of social output between the corporate and private sectors of society. The effect of socioeconomic development on individual calculating behavior was also examined. The provision of alternatives and options may result in a tendency towards more calculating behavior, which may eventually influence fertility behavior. A list was prepared of variables related to fertility and its determinants.