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New York, New York, UNFPA, . v, 36 p. (Report)The former government of Romania sought to maintain existing population and accelerate population growth by restricting migration, increasing fertility, and reducing mortality. The provision and use of family planning (FP) were subject to restrictions and penalties beginning in 1986, the legal marriage age for females was lowered to 15 years, and incentives were provided to bolster fertility. These and other government policies have contributed to existing environmental pollution, poor housing, insufficient food, and major health problems in the country. To progress against population-related problems, Romania most urgently needs to gather reliable population and socioeconomic data for planning purposes, establish the ability to formulate population policy and undertake related activities, rehabilitate the health system and introduce modern FP methods, education health personnel and the public about FP methods, promote awareness of the need for population education, and establish that women's interests are served in government policy and action. These topics, recommendations, and the role of foreign assistance are discussed in turn.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 476 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)The Expert Group on Fertility and Family was one of 4 expert groups assigned the task of examining critical, high priority population issues and, on that basis, making recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action. The report of the Expert Group consisted of 6 topics: 1) fertility response to modernization; 2) family structure and fertility; 3) choice with respect to childbearing, 4) reproductive and economic activity of women, 5) goals, policies and technical cooperation, and 6) recommendations. Contained in this report are also selected background papers with discuss in detail fertility determinants such as modernization, fertility decision processes, socioeconomic determinants, infant and child mortality as a ddeterminant of achieved fertility in some developed countries, the World Fertility Survey's contribution to understanding of fertility levels and trends, fertility in relation to family structure, measurement of the impact of population policies and programs on fertility, and techinical cooperation in the field of fertility and the family.
The Bulgarian experience, statement made at the Special Convocation, Sofia State University, Sofia, Bugaria, 7 October, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p.Although world fertility has entered a perceptible period of decline heralding a deceleration in the rate of population growth, even with the current rate, which is about 1.7%/year, the world is still adding close to 78 million people to its population each year. This figure is estimated to rise to 89 million by the year 2000. A major concern confronting most developing countries at present is the integration of population factors into the development process. In this context, Bulgaria's progress in the twin fields of population and development provides an outstanding example of what can be achieved. Demographic development in the country since 1950 has been impressive. Although the bulk of transition in fertility and growth rate of population had occurred by 1950, the consistent improvement in health services has achieved at an early date what was sought by the World Population Plan of Action in its 2 quantified targets: lower infant mortality rates and longer life expectancy. A major reason for this success is the official policy in regard to the full integration of women into the development process. Internally, Bulgaria pursues a pronatalist policy. Within the context of Bulgaria's national goals of development objectives and human resource potential, this policy is understandable. Bulgaria's population program includes activities to reduce infant and child mortality, improve maternal health, augment reproductive health and increase marital fertility. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities, because of its respect for the sovereign rights of countries to determine their own population policies, has provided assistance for the implementation of this national program.