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Population and Development Review. 2013 Sep; 39(3):551-555.The latest biennial series of population estimates and projections issued by the United Nations Population Division -- known as the 2012 Revision -- was released in June 2013. The series is the most widely used statistical source for international demographic comparisons. The new estimates are advertised as taking into account the results of the 2010 round of censuses, resulting in some adjustments to the 2010 Revision’s baseline figures on total populations and vital rates and, in turn, changes in projection assumptions and projection outputs. Selected results of this exercise, taken from the publication World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables (and from the press release announcing it), are reprinted by permission. (Excerpt)
Efavirenz conceptions and regimen management in a prospective cohort of women on antiretroviral therapy.
Infectious Diseases In Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2012; 2012:723096.Use of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz (EFV) is not recommended by the WHO or South African HIV treatment guidelines during the first trimester of pregnancy due to potential fetal teratogenicity; there is little evidence of how clinicians manage EFV-related fertility concerns. Women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled into a prospective cohort in four public clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. Fertility intentions, ART regimens, and pregnancy testing were routinely assessed during visits. Women reporting that they were trying to conceive while on EFV were referred for regimen changes. Kaplan-Meier estimators were used to assess incidence across ART regimens. From the 822 women with followup visits between August 2009-March 2011, 170 pregnancies were detected during study followup, including 56 EFV conceptions. Pregnancy incidence rates were comparable across EFV, nevirapine, and lopinavir/ritonavir person-years (95% 100/users (P=0.25)); incidence rates on EFV were 18.6 Confidence Interval: 14.2-24.2). Treatment substitution from EFV was made for 57 women, due to pregnancy intentions or actual pregnancy; however, regimen changes were not systematically applied across women. High rates of pregnancy on EFV and inconsistencies in treatment management suggest that clearer guidelines are needed regarding how to manage fertility-related issues in. women on EFV-based regimens.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2011.  p.The milestone of 7 billion is marked by achievements, setbacks and paradoxes. While women are on average having fewer children than they were in the 1960s, our numbers continue to rise. Globally, people are younger -- and older -- than ever before. In some of the poorest countries, high fertility rates hamper development and perpetuate poverty, while in some of the richest countries, low fertility rates and too few people entering the job market are raising concerns about prospects for sustained economic growth and about the viability of social security systems. While labour shortages threaten to stymie the economies of some industrialized countries, unemployed would-be migrants in developing countries are finding more and more national borders closed to them and the expertise they may have to offer. And while progress is being made in reducing extreme poverty, gaps between rich and poor are widening almost everywhere. The State of World Population 2011 explores some of these paradoxes from the perspective of individuals and describes the obstacles they confront -- and overcome -- in trying to build better lives for themselves, their families, communities and nations. Through personal stories, this report sheds light on the real-life challenges we face in our world of 7 billion. It is mainly a report from the field, from nine countries where the ordinary people who live there, the national experts who study demographic trends and the policymakers who must make decisions based on local conditions talk directly about their lives and work: China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, India, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Excerpt)
The scorecard: Moniitoring and evaluating the implementation of the World Bank’s Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010–2015.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Jul.  p.This scorecard is an analysis of the World Bank's Reproductive Health Action Plan. Approved in 2010, the Action Plan marks the Bank's renewed commitment to sexual and reproductive health. Building on recommendations of an evaluation of the Bank and consultation with civil society, it sets out the Bank's approach to increase its effectiveness in promoting and supporting national policies and strategies for reproductive health, and to support improved reproductive health outcomes at national level. One year after its approval, it is time to take stock of the Plan; to assess implementation globally and nationally; to celebrate progress; and to identify where increased focus is needed to ensure that the Plan is reflected in Bank policy and lending patterns. This scorecard includes an analysis of the Reproductive Health Action Plan and its Results Framework. It reviews progress to date and makes recommendations for changes to the indicators. It also includes three country scorecards -- for Burkina Faso, Mali and Ethiopia -- which chart progress at country level in three of the 57 focal countries. (Excerpts)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2008.  p.The Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use -one of the four cornerstones of the World Health Organization's (WHO) evidence-based family planning guidance -provides evidence-based recommendations on whether an individual can safely use a contraceptive method. This guideline is intended for use by policy-makers, programme managers, and the scientific community in the preparation of national family planning/sexual and reproductive health programmes for delivery of contraceptives. The first edition of the Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use was published in 1996; subsequent editions were published in 2000 and 2004.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. 57 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/248)Part one of this report provides a global overview of demographic trends for major areas and selected countries. It reviews major population trends relating to population size and growth, urbanization and city growth, population ageing, fertility and contraception, mortality, including HIV/AIDS, and international migration. In addition, a section on population policies has been included, in which the concerns and responses of Governments to the major population trends are summarized. The outcomes of the United Nations conferences convened during the 1990s set an ambitious development agenda reaffirmed by the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, being one of the major United Nations conferences of the decade, addressed all population aspects relevant for development and provided in its Programme of Action a comprehensive set of measures to achieve the development objectives identified. Given the crucial importance of population factors for development, the full implementation of the Programme of Action and the key actions for its further implementation will significantly contribute to the achievement of the universally agreed development goals, including those in the Millennium Declaration. Part two discusses the relevance that particular actions contained in those documents have for the attainment of universally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. It also describes the key population trends relevant for development and the human rights basis that underpins key conference objectives and recommendations for action. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2007.  p. (ESA/P/WP.202)The 2006 Revision is the twentieth round of official United Nations population estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. These are used throughout the United Nations system as the basis for activities requiring population information. The 2006 Revision builds on the 2004 Revision and incorporates both the results of the 2000 round of national population censuses and of recent specialized surveys carried around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2006 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. According to the 2006 Revision, the world population will likely increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050. This increase is equivalent to the size the world population had in 1950 and it will be absorbed mostly by the less developed regions, whose population is projected to rise from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050. In contrast, the population of the more developed regions is expected to remain largely unchanged at 1.2 billion and would have declined were it not for the projected net migration from developing to developed countries, which is expected to average 2.3 million persons annually. (excerpt)
The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. II. Factors associated with the length of amenorrhea.
Fertility and Sterility. 1998 Sep; 70(3):461-471.The objective was to determine the relation between infant feeding practices (and other factors) and the duration of postpartum amenorrhea, and to establish whether there are real differences in the duration of postpartum amenorrhea for similar breast-feeding practices in different populations. Design: Prospective, nonexperimental, longitudinal follow-up study. Setting: Five developing and two developed countries. Patient(s): Four thousand one hundred eighteen breast-feeding mothers and their infants. Breast-feeding women collected ongoing information about infant feeding and family planning practices, plus the return of menses. Fortnightly follow-up occurred in the women's homes. A multivariate analysis explored the association between the risk of menses return and 16 infant feeding variables and 11 other characteristics. Ten factors (in addition to center effects) were significantly related to the duration of amenorrhea. Seven of these were infant feeding characteristics and the remaining three were high parity, low body mass index, and a higher frequency of infant illness. The breast-feeding stimulus is strongly linked to the duration of postpartum amenorrhea. Cross-cultural effects also are extremely important and may have caused the variations in feeding, the variation in amenorrhea, or both. (author's)
Evolution of national population policies since the United Nations 1954 World Population Conference.
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):297-328.Population policy did not figure prominently at the 1954 United Nations World Population Conference in Rome. It was a commonly held view at the time that "population matters" were in the personal and family sphere and thus, not an appropriate area of involvement for Governments. Nevertheless, some discussion took place on policies to reduce population growth in less developed regions, on policies to raise fertility in more developed regions, on the impact of population ageing and on the consequences of international migration for sending and receiving countries. This paper tracks Government's views and policies on population and development since the 1954 Rome Conference. Among other things, it considers the central role played by United Nations global population conferences in facilitating international cooperation and national government entrance into embracing population policies. (excerpt)
Population division, department of economic and social affairs, United Nations, MORTPAK for windows version 4.0.
Journal of Population Research. 2004 Nov;  p..The United Nations has released Version 4.0 of its demographic software package MORTPAK. Although MORTPAK 4.0 is designed primarily to estimate mortality, it includes population projections, life tables and stable-population construction, graduation of mortality data, indirect mortality estimations, indirect fertility estimations, and other indirect procedures for evaluating age distributions and the completeness of censuses. For a more comprehensive analysis of mortality however, it is recommended that both the MORTPAK 4.0 package and the US Bureau of the Census spreadsheets (PAS) be used. MORTPAK 4.0 takes advantage of a Windows user interface. While previous DOS versions have been used by demographers since the 1980s, data entry is now on worksheets that resemble spreadsheets, but do not have the functionality of a full spreadsheet. After a new MORTPAK worksheet has been opened, data prepared on a spreadsheet can be pasted into it and the selected application run from dropdown menus. After a selected MORTPAK application has been run, the results can be copied and pasted back into a spreadsheet for further calculation or for creating graphs. The graphing capabilities of MORTPAK itself are still not well developed. MORTPAK output now takes two forms: one recognizable to users of older versions is called document output and is ready for exporting to a Word document in rich text format; the second is placed onto the worksheet and can be copied into a spreadsheet. MORTPAK 4.0 can import data from previous versions of MORTPAK. (excerpt)
Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. 2005 Jun; 21(2):1-17.The objective of this study is to understand determinants of mortality rates of children under the age of five years in developing countries. The study uses secondary data to investigate the relationship between under-five mortality rates and such socioeconomic variables as fertility, literacy, immunization, access to clean drinking water, HIV/AIDS prevalence, and human and material resources using linear regression analysis. Results show that while most of these variables have a significant relationship with under-five mortality rate, the proportion of doctors for every 100,000 population, and health expenditure per capita have an insignificant predictive value. Conclusion: Reducing child mortality rates requires multiple intervention strategies, such as access to safe drinking water, improvement in education opportunities, family planning, and tackling HIV/AIDS. (author's)
Chinese Journal of Health Education. 2003 Jun; 19(6):457-458.The concept of reproductive health is a new one first advanced by World Health Organization (WHO) human health research plan chairman Barzelatto in 1988. In 1994 the WHO Global Policy Council formally adopted a definition of reproductive health; in 1995 the World Health Congress again stressed the importance of the WHO’s global reproductive health strategy, and proposed an international health struggle goal of “universal access to reproductive health by 2015.” The definition and scope of reproductive health. Reproductive health is a physical, mental and social state of well being, but not only a lack of sickness or debilitation. The particular scope includes having a healthy and harmonious sexual physiology and a regular sex life, free from worry of sexually transmitted disease or unwanted pregnancy; people having the ability to have children, but also having scientific adjustments and control of their own reproduction, to freely decide whether to have children, when to have children and how many to have. It requires that the sexes have equal rights to knowledge to make safe, effective and responsible choices; access to methods of reproductive control; use of appropriate health services; safe and comfortable pregnancy and childbirth, with the best opportunity for the mother and infant’s health. Important contents of reproductive health: sexually mature sperm, ovum, pregnancy, period of nursing after birth, regulation of fertility, cure of infertility, reproductive infection and prevention of disease. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2004.  p.This document is one important step in a process for improving access to quality of care in family planning by reviewing the medical eligibility criteria for selecting methods of contraception. It updates the second edition of Improving access to quality care in family planning: medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, published in 2000, and summarizes the main recommendations of an expert Working Group meeting held at the World Health Organization, Geneva, 21-24 October 2003. (Please see Annex 2 for the list of participants.) The Working Group brought together 36 participants from 18 countries, including representatives of many agencies and organizations. The document provides recommendations for appropriate medical eligibility criteria based on the latest clinical and epidemiological data and is intended to be used by policy-makers, family planning programme managers and the scientific community. It aims to provide guidance to national family planning/reproductive health programmes in the preparation of guidelines for service delivery of contraceptives. It should not be seen or used as the actual guidelines but rather as a reference. The document covers the following family planning methods: low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COCs), combined injectable contraceptives (CICs), combined patch (P), combined vaginal ring (R), progestogen-only pills (POPs), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enantate (NET-EN), levonorgestrel (LNG) and etonogestrel (ETG) implants, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), copper intrauterine devices (Cu- IUDs), levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs (LNG-IUDs), copper-IUD for emergency contraception (E-IUD), barrier methods (BARR), fertility awareness-based methods (FAB), lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM), coitus interruptus (CI), and female and male sterilization (STER). (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/233)This volume presents the analytical report for World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, the official United Nations population estimates and projections. The analytical report is the third volume of a three-volume set; the earlier two published volumes provide the comprehensive tables and the sex and age distribution of the population of all countries of the world. A CD-Rom containing the results of the 2002 Revision population estimates and projections is also available for purchase. A description of these data sets contained in each and an order form appear at the end of this volume. The 2002 Revision is the eighteenth round of global demographic estimates and projections undertaken by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. Between 1951 and 2000, following an early attempt in the 1940s, 17 revisions of population estimates and projections were published: in 1951, 1954, 1957, 1963, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1998 and 2000. This analytical report employs a different format than previous reports. In particular, the first five chapters, provide succinct and easy accessible summaries of the main demographic tendencies covered. More detailed analytical tables are given in the annex. Chapter VI, on the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS, provides more details than the other chapters because of the importance of its subject. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2004.  p.Member States and non-member States of the United Nations. In particular, it itemizes policies in the areas of population size and growth, population age structure, fertility and family planning, health and mortality, spatial distribution and international migration. World Population Policies 2003 is similar in format to the 2001 and 1998 editions of National Population Policies (United Nations publication, Sales Nos. E.02.XIII.12 and E.99.XIII.3). Prior to 1998, the data were published as the Global Review and Inventory of Population Policies (GRIPP). A major characteristic of United Nations international population conferences during the past three decades has been the emphasis placed on the monitoring of the implementation of their goals and recommendations. Accordingly, the Programme of Action adopted by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994 recommended that actions should be taken “to measure, assess, monitor and evaluate progress towards meeting the goals of the present Programme of Action”. The monitoring of population policies at the international level has a long history that goes back to the World Population Plan of Action adopted at the World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974. The Plan of Action was the first international instrument on population policy. Within the framework of the Plan of Action, population policies were defined in terms of all policies and programmes—including social and economic policies—concerned with the major population variables: fertility, mortality, internal migration and geographical distribution of population, and international migration. (excerpt)
World population in 2300. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300, United Nations Headquarters, New York.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004 Mar 24 x, 36 p. (ESA/P/WP.187/Rev.1)In order to address the technical and substantive challenges posed by the preparation of long-range projections at the national level, the Population Division convened two meetings of experts. The first meeting, the Technical Working Group on Long-Range Population Projections, was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 30 June 2003 and provided consultation on the proposed assumptions and methodology for the projection exercise. The second meeting, the Expert Meeting on World Population in 2300, was held at United Nations Headquarters on 9 December 2003. Its purpose was to examine the results of the long-range projections and to discuss lessons learned and policy implications. The Expert Group consisted of 30 invited experts participating in their personal capacity. Also attending were staff members of the Population Division and the Statistics Division, both part of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. This document presents the report of the meeting of the Expert Group on World Population in 2300, along with the background paper prepared by the Population Division and the questions addressed by the meeting. The Population Division drew valuable guidance from the deliberations at the meeting as well as from comments submitted in writing by the experts. All of these inputs will be taken into consideration in preparing the final report on the long-range projections, as well as in future projection exercises. The Population Division extends its appreciation to all the experts for their suggestions and contributions to the preparation of the long-range projections. (excerpt)
Culture and human fertility. A study of the relation of cultural conditions to fertility in non-industrial and transitional societies.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1954 Oct. 510 p. (Population and Culture)The study attempts to develop coherent interpretations of a large mass of diverse demographic, anthropological and other scientific evidence. The committee believes these formulations have value, especially as presenting hypotheses for research and revealing points at which more precise information is needed. Professor Firth, as an anthropologist, and I, as a demographer, have reservations with respect to some of the interpretations. Other scholars who have seen the manuscript support interpretations with which we would disagree. Professor Lorimer himself has indicated that his inferences at many points are tentative formulations. The committee, like the author, presents the study to the public, not as a definitive formulation of the many complex aspects of this subject, but as a significant and valuable, though necessarily subjective, interpretation. The committee shares the author's hope that the publication of this work will lead to more intensive scientific investigations and more definitive knowledge in the future. We believe that Professor Lorimer's work, because it is his own untrammeled product, will accomplish more, both constructively and provocatively, than could be expected at this stage from a study that achieved unanimous agreement by an emasculating compromise. Finally, we wish to express our deep gratitude to Professor Lorimer for the energy, imagination and scholarly dedication with which he has approached his arduous task. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
Metropolis. 2003 Oct 3;  p..The defining issue of modernity is control of women's fertility. It is this question -- more than religion, politics, economics or the "clash of civilizations" -- that forms the deepest dividing line in the world today. It is a line that cuts through every nation, every people, from the highest level of organized society down to, in many cases, the divided minds and emotions of individual men and women. (excerpt)
Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Analytical and Information Center, 2003 May. ix, 30 p.This preliminary report documents the changes that have occurred in the medical-demographic situation of Uzbekistan since the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Additional information is provided concerning issues of both male and female adult health: life style practices, knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and information about respiratory, digestive, and dental diseases. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division, 1995. x, 1,032 p. (No. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.R/24)This is a comprehensive collection of international demographic statistics published annually by the United Nations. "The tables in this issue of the Yearbook are presented in two parts, the basic tables followed by the tables devoted to population censuses, the special topic in this issue. The first part contains tables giving a world summary of basic demographic statistics, followed by tables presenting statistics on the size, distribution and trends in population, natality, foetal mortality, infant and maternal mortality, general mortality, nuptiality and divorce. In the second part, this issue of the Yearbook serves to update the census information featured in the 1988 issue. Census data on demographic and social characteristics include population by single years of age and sex, national and/or ethnic composition, language and religion. Tables showing data on geographical characteristics include information on major civil divisions and localities by size-class. Educational characteristics include population data on literacy, educational attainment and school attendance. In many of the tables, data are shown by urban/rural residence."
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 383-9.The European Association of Population Studies (EAPS) was founded in 1993 to disseminate information and organize workshops with affiliated individuals and institutions. The priority topics are international migration, fertility and the family, health and mortality, population growth and age structure, and international cooperation. Within each of these broad areas, workshops and conferences have taken place, and proceedings have been published. This article summarizes the nature of conferences held in each of the five topic areas. For example, joint institutional responsibility among Dutch and European groups, including EAPS, resulted in a 1991 international symposium on the demographic consequences of international migration. In 1985, a symposium was held in Belgium on one parent families. In 1989, a workshop was held on female labor market behavior and fertility. In 1990, a workshop was held on mortality and health care systems in developed countries. Methods of European mortality analysis were discussed at a 1990 international seminar in Lithuania. The impact of policies without explicit demographic goals was discussed at an international conference held in Germany in 1986. Kinship and aging research were discussed in 1988 in Hungary. A workshop was held in Germany in 1993 on pension, health care, labor market, and birth control policies. Data comparability issues in Europe were reviewed in 1991. The first European Population Conference was held in 1987 in Finland; the second was held in 1991 in France.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 311-6.The population of Slovakia was 5,268,935 in 1991, of which 25.3% were aged under 14 years, 59.9% aged 15-59 years, and 14.8% aged 60 years and older (retirement). Demographic changes include population aging and urbanization. Marriage is declining, and 4% of the population is divorced. The time span for first marriages has narrowed to 18-22 years for women and 21-25 years for men. The number of premarital pregnancies has risen. Marriages among pregnant women have doubled (44% of all marriages). Single-parent families with children account for 10.4% of all households, of which 80% are headed by women. Between 1955 and 1990, the population increased by 41%, the birth rate declined by 43.2%, and the death rate increased by 17%. The aging of the population is expected to be more intense after 2005. Slovakia is aware of UN conventions and protocols on migration and expects migrants to stay only temporarily. Humanitarian centers and private homes are used for housing refugees. Illegal immigration involves primarily Turkish citizens of Kurdish origins. Life expectancy is 67 years for men and 75 years for women. Mortality is high among the working age population. Mortality distributed by age is as follows: 53.6% among persons 70 years and older, 22.3% among persons aged 60-69 years, 21.8% among people aged 15-60 years, and 1.8% for those aged under one year.